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Agility & Speed

Spine Specialist Team: Agility & speed are necessary for athletes and individuals who actively engage in physical activity and sports. These individuals often depend on these abilities to increase their overall performance. Quickly and gracefully, both mental and physical skills are often a key element towards overcoming challenges related to the individual’s specific sport. The key to improving agility is to minimize the loss of speed when redirecting the body’s center of gravity.

Rapid change drills that change direction forward, backward, vertically, and laterally will help improve individuals by training your body to make these changes more quickly. Dr. Alex Jimenez describes various stretches and exercises utilized to enhance agility and speed throughout his collection of articles, focusing largely on the benefits of fitness and occasional injuries or conditions resulting from overexertion.

Engaging The Core: El Paso Back Clinic

Engaging The Core: El Paso Back Clinic

The body’s core muscles are used for stability, balance, lifting, pushing, pulling, and movement. Engaging the core muscles means bracing and tightening the abdominal muscles, which include the latissimus dorsi/lats, paraspinal muscles, gluteus maximus/glutes, and trapezius/traps. When engaged, the trunk muscles help maintain spinal stability, support the spine and pelvis in sitting and resting positions and during dynamic movements, and help prevent injury.

Engaging The Core: EP Chiropractic Clinic

Engaging The Core

To know how to engage the core, individuals need to understand what the core is. The most important muscles for engaging the core include: These muscles are involved every time the body inhales and exhales, in posture control, and when using the bathroom, they start and stop the process.

Rectus Abdominis

  • The rectus abdominis muscle is responsible for the six-pack.
  • It’s a long, flat muscle that extends from the pubic bone to the sixth and seventh ribs.
  • The rectus abdominis is primarily responsible for bending the spine.

External Obliques

  • These are the muscles on either side of the rectus abdominis.
  • The external obliques allow the torso to twist, bend sideways, flex the spine, and compress the abdomen.

Internal Obliques

  • The internal obliques lie below the external obliques.
  • They work with the external obliques in the same functions.

Transverse Abdominis

  • This is the deepest layer of muscle in the abdomen.
  • It completely wraps around the torso and extends from the ribs to the pelvis.
  • The transverse abdominis are not responsible for spine or hip movement but for stabilizing the spine, compressing the organs, and supporting the abdominal wall.

Latissimus Dorsi

  • Commonly known as the lats, these muscles run along both sides of the spine from just below the shoulder blades to the pelvis.
  • The lats help stabilize the back, especially when extending the shoulders.
  • They also contribute to body ability when twisting from side to side.

Erector Spinae

  • The erector spinae muscles are on each side of the spine and extend down the back.
  • These muscles are responsible for extending and rotating the back and side-to-side movement.
  • These are considered postural muscles and are almost always working.

What Not To Do

Individuals learn from mistakes, which might make learning how to engage the core easier by understanding what not to do. Common examples of failing to or not engaging the core correctly.

  • The back slumps when sitting down – the upper body lacks strength and stability.
  • When bending, the stomach sticks out more.
  • Swaying or leaning far to one side when walking – lack of lower body strength causes balance and stability problems.
  • The lower abdomen and back present with discomfort and pain symptoms.


Engaging the core decreases the chance of sustaining an injury at home, work, or exercising and can help with chronic back pain. It creates a stable musculature around the spine that keeps the vertebrae from over-flexing, over-extending, and bending too far to one side. Engaging the core muscles can mean different things, depending on what is trying to be achieved.

  • For example, if doing bending work, the muscles needed, and the order in which they contract differs from when trying to maintain balance while standing on one leg.
  • The muscles engaged will differ in their movement depending on whether an individual is:
  • Trying to move the spine or stabilize it.
  • Pushing or pulling weight.
  • Standing, sitting, or lying down.

For a strong and functional core, the objective is to be able to engage the core in any situation. Engaging the core can be challenging, but with training and practice, the body becomes stronger. Practice engaging the core throughout daily activities that include.

  • Bracing the core while standing, sitting at a workstation or desk, and walking.
  • Day-to-day activities, like reaching for something from a high shelf, grocery shopping, and taking the stairs.

Injury Medical Chiropractic and Functional Medicine Clinic can create a personalized program to address musculoskeletal issues, core training, targeted exercise, stretching, nutrition, massage, and adjustments to get the body to optimal health and maintain health.

The Non-Surgical Solution


Eickmeyer, Sarah M. “Anatomy and Physiology of the Pelvic Floor.” Physical Medicine and rehabilitation clinics of North America vol. 28,3 (2017): 455-460. doi:10.1016/j.pmr.2017.03.003

Lawson, Samantha, and Ashley Sacks. “Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy and Women’s Health Promotion.” Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health vol. 63,4 (2018): 410-417. doi:10.1111/jmwh.12736

Seaman, Austin P et al. “Building a Center for Abdominal Core Health: The Importance of a Holistic Multidisciplinary Approach.” Journal of gastrointestinal surgery: official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract vol. 26,3 (2022): 693-701. doi:10.1007/s11605-021-05241-5

Vining, Robert, et al. “Effects of Chiropractic Care on Strength, Balance, and Endurance in Active-Duty U.S. Military Personnel with Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) vol. 26,7 (2020): 592-601. doi:10.1089/acm.2020.0107

Weis, Carol Ann, et al. “Chiropractic Care for Adults With Pregnancy-Related Low Back, Pelvic Girdle Pain, or Combination Pain: A Systematic Review.” Journal of Manipulative and physiological therapeutics vol. 43,7 (2020): 714-731. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2020.05.005

Zachovajeviene, B et al. “Effect of the diaphragm and abdominal muscle training on pelvic floor strength and endurance: results of a prospective randomized trial.” Scientific Reports vol. 9,1 19192. 16 Dec. 2019, doi:10.1038/s41598-019-55724-4

Mountain Biking Training Beginners: El Paso Back Clinic

Mountain Biking Training Beginners: El Paso Back Clinic

Mountain and trail biking is a fun way to exercise. Mountain biking requires total body/core strength, explosive power, balance, endurance, and agility to maneuver the bike, build speed, and absorb the rough bumps and terrain. But it also means that certain muscles get overused, causing overcompensation in the body that can lead to musculoskeletal problems and conditions. Strength, cardiovascular, and cross-fit can benefit mountain biking training for improved performance, safer and more confident riding, and injury prevention.

Mountain Biking Training Beginners: EP's Chiropractic Team

Mountain Biking Training

A few of the benefits of training are:

  • Increasing bone density.
  • Improving joint health.
  • Correcting imbalances and unhealthy posture.
  • Weight loss.
  • Aging muscle loss prevention.

Maintaining body posture centered on the bike requires core strength to perform the movements when moving the body backward and forwards, side to side, and pushing up and down when different obstacles pop up. The exercises’ objective is to work various body parts simultaneously and diagonally, like the movements used on the bike.

General Overview of Mountain Biking Training

  • Build strength – Target the quads, hamstrings, and abdominal muscles to power pedaling strokes.
  • Increase endurance – Avoid getting fatigued early because of weakened legs and aerobic performance.
  • Improve mountain bike skills – Ride faster and more efficiently by improving bike handling and technical skills.

Example Training Week

The terrain determines the intensity, but the same basic principles apply to mountain biking training as other endurance sports. Here’s a training example for a beginner that can be adjusted to the rider’s needs:


  • Stretching and training the muscles to relax prevent becoming stiff or cramping up during rides.


  • Beginner small hills trail ride.
  • The hills are equivalent to HIIT training.
  • Recover on the flats and downhills.


  • Light, short ride.
  • Focus on pedaling techniques and/or cornering drills.


  • Medium-length trail ride on flat to rolling hills.
  • Keep it conversational pace and enjoy the trails.


  • Recovery day.
  • Stretching, massage, and foam rolling.


  • Long trail ride.
  • Go at a conversational pace and have fun.
  • Don’t let technique fail when the body starts to get tired.


  • Medium-length trail ride.
  • Go at a conversational pace.

Basic Skills

Practicing technical skills will prepare beginning mountain bikers for success. Here are a few basic skills to get started:


  • Riding singletrack means making tight turns.
  • Cornering is a critical skill that should never stop being practiced and improved.

Cornering Drills

  • Pick a corner on a local trail and ride through it until mastered.
  • Focus on riding smoothly through the corner, and speed will generate.
  • As confidence builds in the corners, do the same on the opposite side.

Straighten Out

  • Ride to the furthest outside edge when approaching the turn.
  • Initiate the turn just before the sharpest point of the corner.
  • Stick to the furthest outside point of the corner when riding out of the corner.

Brake Before The Corner

  • Braking in the corner can cause the tires to slide out of control, causing a slip-and-fall accident.
  • Look through the turn as the bike follows where the eyes look.
  • Don’t stare at the front wheel, which could lead to a falling or flipping accident.
  • Eventually, riders can handle this technique, but it’s too advanced for beginners.

Smooth Ride

Beginners can be amazed at how much terrain bikes can ride over and through. Modern mountain bike suspension and tire systems can handle it. However, using the correct technique is essential to get through or around the obstacles and avoid crashes.

  • Stay aware of the surroundings.
  • Keep the body loose when approaching obstacles.
  • Decide how to overcome the obstacle – ride over, pop/raise the wheels, jump, or ride around.
  • Maintain confidence.
  • When riding over the obstacle, maintain an even balance on the pedals and keep the buttocks slightly off the saddle.
  • Keep arms and legs loose and let the body absorb the shock of the obstacle.
  • Trust the suspension and tires.
  • Ensure enough speed is generated to go over it and that it won’t stop the bike and cause a fall.
  • Some rough trail areas can require added strength to hold the bike steady.


  • There is no need to squeeze the brake handles with extreme force.
  • Extreme braking, especially the front, will likely lead to a flip or crash.
  • The brakes are made to stop with minimal force.
  • Beginners are recommended to learn to use a light touch when braking.
  • Improvement will follow with each riding session.



Arriel, Rhaí André, et al. “Current Perspectives of Cross-Country Mountain Biking: Physiological and Mechanical Aspects, Evolution of Bikes, Accidents, and Injuries.” International journal of environmental research and public health vol. 19,19 12552. 1 Oct. 2022, doi:10.3390/ijerph191912552

Inoue, Allan, et al. “Effects of Sprint versus High-Intensity Aerobic Interval Training on Cross-Country Mountain Biking Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” PloS one vol. 11,1 e0145298. 20 Jan. 2016, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0145298

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Muyor, J M, and M Zabala. “Road Cycling and Mountain Biking Produce Adaptations on the Spine and Hamstring Extensibility.” International Journal of sports medicine vol. 37,1 (2016): 43-9. doi:10.1055/s-0035-1555861

Ranchordas, Mayur K. “Nutrition for adventure racing.” Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) vol. 42,11 (2012): 915-27. doi:10.1007/BF03262303

Field Hockey Conditioning: El Paso Back Clinic

Field Hockey Conditioning: El Paso Back Clinic

Field hockey is one of the world’s oldest team sports, dating back to the classical Greek era. It also is recognized as one of the oldest college sports in America. It is a game where teams composed of 11 players, including one goalkeeper, come together on a field and use hockey sticks to drive a ball into a net to score points. The winner is determined by whoever has the most points at the end of the game. The sport requires high aerobic and anaerobic fitness to provide endurance, strength to position, trap, pass, and hit the ball, push and flick the ball, and acceleration/speed and agility. Here we look at the basic fitness components and chiropractic care benefits.

Field Hockey Conditioning: EP Chiropractic Functional Team

Field Hockey

Aerobic Fitness

Field hockey players need to have high levels of endurance to perform. The game consists of 2 35 – minute halves, with a 10-minute break, plus stoppages. This consistent use of energy and muscular strength requires the cardiovascular system to supply oxygen through the blood.

  • A conditioning workout should include long-distance and interval training.
  • Long-distance running or biking is a great way to build up the endurance to run back and forth on the field.
  • To keep workouts fun, alternate between long-distance and interval.

Strength and Power

Players need to be physically strong to power through an opponent, drive the ball, or push the ball out from another player’s stick. Incorporating exercises that strengthen the entire body will help.

  • Body-weight workouts will work if you don’t have access to a gym or weights.
  • Squats, glute bridges, and lunges can help build a strong lower body.
  • Push-ups and tricep dips are great for the upper body.

Lower body injuries are common. The risk can be reduced by 50% through regular participation in a strength training program with a resistance component, such as neuromuscular training.


  • The ability to change direction quickly is important, as players will change direction at least every 5 seconds during a game.
  • Players should include interval training to increase quickness and agility.
  • Common agility drills are ladder drills, lateral sprints, and hill climbs.


  • Healthy hamstring and lower back flexibility maintain stability and balance, which is also important for injury prevention.
  • Yoga and simple stretches increase flexibility.

Field hockey fitness is about perfecting moves to become an automatic reaction.

Chiropractic Benefits

After putting their body through intense training, players can benefit from sports massage and chiropractic. Benefits include:

Increased Range of Motion

The sport requires a wide range of motion. A misaligned area like the spine and hips causes weakness in the muscles and tendons near the joints causing the player to take on awkward positioning that can lead to various neuromusculoskeletal issues and injuries. Chiropractic reset and realignment maintain body flexibility, muscle relaxation, optimal circulation and strengthen the areas causing weakness.

Enhanced Balance and Coordination

Balance and coordination are critical as the players sprint, shift, twist, and turn. The eyes and ears are the main balance components, but the nervous system plays a role. Chiropractic spinal alignment increases the nervous system’s function of sending signals to the rest of the body.

Speeds up Recovery From Injury

Chiropractic helps heal injury quicker because fluids and nutrients released after an adjustment will move toward the damage expediting healing. Chiropractic breaks up scar tissue and trigger points to rebuild that strength and stamina without the risk of worsening or further injury.

Chiropractic care will improve how the central nervous system communicates with the rest of the body.

Strength Training


Espí-López, Gemma V et al. “Effect of manual therapy versus proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in dynamic balance, mobility and flexibility in field hockey players. A randomized controlled trial.” Physical therapy in sport: official journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports Medicine vol. 32 (2018): 173-179. doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2018.04.017

Krzykała, M et al. “Does field hockey increase morphofunctional asymmetry? A pilot study.” Homo : internationale Zeitschrift fur die vergleichende Forschung am Menschen vol. 69,1-2 (2018): 43-49. doi:10.1016/j.jchb.2018.03.003

Reilly, T, and A Borrie. “Physiology applied to field hockey.” Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) vol. 14,1 (1992): 10-26. doi:10.2165/00007256-199214010-00002

Tapsell, Liam C et al. “Validity and Reliability of a Field Hockey-Specific Dribbling Speed Test.” Journal of strength and conditioning research vol. 36,6 (2022): 1720-1725. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000003700

Table Tennis Health Benefits: El Paso Back Clinic

Table Tennis Health Benefits: El Paso Back Clinic

Table tennis is a sport that individuals of all ages and abilities can play. The small scale and reduced movement make it more accessible. It has become more physical, with professional players making fitness an important part of their training. However, at all levels, it offers moderate-intensity activity, which is good for the heart, mind, and body. Recreational table tennis has been found to increase concentration, stimulate brain function, help develop tactical thinking skills and hand-eye coordination, and provide aerobic exercise and social interaction.

Table Tennis Health Benefits: EP Chiropractic and Functional Team

Table Tennis

The setup and rules are similar to tennis and can be played solo or in doubles. The skills needed to develop are learning to hit and control the ball consistently. Table tennis can be complex, with various shots, spins, and styles, but the foundational skills required include:

Proper Footwork

  • Although the body does not move that far, footwork is essential with the quick movements that are made in a short period.
  • Basic footwork techniques include fast dynamic movement, balance, and weight distribution.


  • Basic serving is necessary to get the point going.
  • There are many types of service in table tennis, but the major ones are the forehand and backhand serve.

Forehand and Backhand Strokes

  • Different stroke styles can be used, but forehand and backhand strokes are the most common.
  • Learning how the body activates and responds to the swing, the point of contact and the follow-through of each stroke is essential to get the most out of each stroke.

Speed and Agility

  • Table tennis is a fast-twitch muscle sport that utilizes quick bursts of energy and explosive strength.
  • Coaches and players use a combination of hybrid, high-intensity, and functional training to condition the body.
  • High-intensity interval training incorporates explosive movements, like squat jumps, to activate the muscles and the anaerobic threshold.

Hand-eye coordination

  • Playing improves hand-eye coordination skills and stimulates mental alertness and concentration.
  • This is great for sharpening overall reflexes.

Health Benefits

Table tennis offers several health benefits that include:

  • It is a social sport that provides a fun way to spend time with family and friends.
  • The overall risk for injury is low.
  • Easy on the muscles and joints.
  • Increases energy.
  • Improves balance.
  • Improves reflexes.
  • Burns calories.
  • Keeps the brain sharp.
  • Relieves stress.

Table Tennis


Biernat, Elżbieta, et al. “Eye on the Ball: Table Tennis as a Pro-Health Form of Leisure-Time Physical Activity.” International journal of environmental research and public health vol. 15,4 738. 12 Apr. 2018, doi:10.3390/ijerph15040738

Picabea, Jon Mikel, et al. “Physical Fitness Profiling of National Category Table Tennis Players: Implication for Health and Performance.” International journal of environmental research and public health vol. 18,17 9362. 4 Sep. 2021, doi:10.3390/ijerph18179362

Pilis, Karol, et al. “Body composition and nutrition of female athletes.” Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny vol. 70,3 (2019): 243-251. doi:10.32394/rpzh.2019.0074

Zagatto, Alessandro Moura, et al. “Energetic demand and physical conditioning of table tennis players. A study review.” Journal of sports sciences vol. 36,7 (2018): 724-731. doi:10.1080/02640414.2017.1335957

Zhu, Ke, and Lina Xu. “Analysis on the Influence of Table Tennis Elective Course on College Students’ Health.” Journal of healthcare engineering vol. 2022 8392683. 17 Jan. 2022, doi:10.1155/2022/8392683

Agility Enhancement: El Paso Back Clinic

Agility Enhancement: El Paso Back Clinic

Agility is the ability to accelerate, decelerate, stabilize, and quickly change directions with proper form and posture. Everyone, athletes and non-athletes, use agility every day. This can be maneuvering around objects during a jog, shifting movements or positions when walking through a crowd, reaching toward the highest shelf, or carrying things upstairs. These controlled reactions require a balance of coordination, speed, stamina, and strength. Injury Medical Chiropractic and Functional Medicine Clinic can provide agility enhancement through adjustments, massage, and decompression to relax the body, strengthen the muscles, and improve circulation and nerve function.

Agility Enhancement: EP's Chiropractic Functional TeamAgility Enhancement

Individuals need skill and control to react to a stimulus or movement. Agility requires muscular coordination, efficiency, and cohesiveness between the upper and lower body. Agility and reaction time are two components of neuromusculoskeletal health that work together. Agility enhancement can improve cognitive ability, power production, and physical performance. Agility enhancement improves overall physical skills, including:

  • Balance
  • Stability
  • Coordination
  • Body Control
  • Cognition
  • Recovery time

Chiropractic Care

Chiropractic improves agility neurologically through improved circulation and energy flow in the nervous system.

Injury Treatment and Prevention

Agility enhancement can help with injury prevention, as agility training increases control, balance, and flexibility. It teaches the correct body placement while moving to protect the knees, shoulders, and lower back. It also helps to strengthen the muscles and improve the resiliency of the connective tissue allowing them to shorten and lengthen rapidly. This helps prevent injuries and relieves pain and stiffness associated with muscle overuse.

  • Stiffness often occurs from the overuse of muscles.
  • Stiffness reduces flexibility, increasing the risk of injury and affecting movement and physical capabilities.
  • Stiffness can even occur from changes in everyday routines.
  • Chiropractic prevents the muscles from tensing up, reducing stiffness and increasing your range of motion.
  • Chiropractic helps strengthen the musculoskeletal system, which makes it easier to maintain normal balance.
  • Chiropractic can strengthen the muscles by making the muscle fibers more excitable, contributing to quicker reaction time.

We create rehabilitation and strength and conditioning treatment plans that are individualized for each individual. This program entails the following:

  • Chiropractic assessment.
  • Therapeutic massage.
  • Rehabilitation exercises.
  • Strengthening of the whole body.
  • Posture, mobility, and performance education for improved movement.
  • Health and nutritional recommendations.

Our treatment programs are designed to improve each individual’s whole body health and decrease the risk of injury.

Improve Balance And Agility


Ali, Kamran, et al. “Comparison of Complex Versus Contrast Training on Steroid Hormones and Sports Performance in Male Soccer Players.” Journal of chiropractic medicine vol. 18,2 (2019): 131-138. doi:10.1016/j.jcm.2018.12.001

Järvinen, Tero A H, et al. “Muscle injuries: optimizing recovery.” Best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology vol. 21,2 (2007): 317-31. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2006.12.004

Lennemann, Lynette M et al. “The influence of agility training on physiological and cognitive performance.” Journal of strength and conditioning research vol. 27,12 (2013): 3300-9. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31828ddf06

Miners, Andrew L. “Chiropractic treatment and the enhancement of sports performance: a narrative literature review.” The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association vol. 54,4 (2010): 210-21.

Baseball Training: Chiropractic Back Clinic

Baseball Training: Chiropractic Back Clinic

All sports differ in the relative importance of various physical skills contributing to the game and individual performance. Baseball is a precision sport with fast, explosive movements and full-body activity. The ability to repeatedly perform near maximum level with little rest is necessary for baseball players. Baseball training involves a multidimensional approach that focuses on speed, agility, and strength in a way that is relative to the motions and requirements of the sport.

Baseball Training: Injury Medical Chiropractic ClinicBaseball Training

Trainers have to assess the unique needs of the sport and determine the time needed to improve each quality within the athlete. They should focus on the following:

  • Improving core strength and trunk rotation.
  • Increasing shoulder stability and strength.
  • Improving quick reactive movements.
  • Increasing explosiveness.
  • Improving running, throwing, and bat speed.
  • Injury prevention.

Baseball training workouts are targeted at increasing running speed, bat speed, pitching, and throwing velocity that breaks down the muscle groups for improving performance while decreasing the risk of injury. Training consists of combined conditioning that includes:

  • Sprinting
  • Interval runs
  • Jump rope
  • High-intensity cardio
  • Strength training

Rotational Movements

  • Players often lack abdominal or core strength.
  • One of the main aspects of baseball is the hitting and throwing that is done in a rotational movement and are explosive.
  • Players are recommended to train rotationally with light weights and high speed.
  • Exercises emphasizing rotating the hips and torso with resistance, including cable and pulley machines, dumbbell workouts, and medicine ball workouts, are effective.
  • Abdominal crunches and various rotational twists with a medicine ball can develop a strong muscular base in this area.
  • This will improve strength and power in the core area, which is vital for swinging a bat and throwing.

Shoulder and Rotator Cuff Work

  • High stress is placed on the shoulder joint and the rotator cuff muscles.
  • Pitching happens at the shoulder joint and is one of the fastest human movements.
  • Repetitive stress increases the risk of injury.
  • Exercises that strengthen the anterior and posterior shoulder muscles in a balanced manner are recommended.
  • Shoulder flexibility is necessary to allow external rotation when throwing at high speeds.
  • Deceleration is the area of pitching where injuries happen most.
  • Plyometric shoulder and upper body exercises can help with the explosive pitching motion.

Explosive Speed

Bat Speed

  • Players need increased lower body and core strength to develop power in the swing.
  • The muscles require rotational training at a high velocity.
  • Strong hip and leg muscles initiate the swing.
  • The core area transfers the rotational speed to the torso.
  • The arms complete the swing.
  • The efficient transfer of force from the lower body to the upper body or the kinetic chain principle requires balance for optimal transfer.
  • Strong lats, triceps, and forearms facilitate optimal bat acceleration during ball contact.
  • Forearm and triceps exercises, squats, bench presses, and pull-ups are recommended.

Throwing Velocity

  • Throwing a baseball at high velocity is a full-body movement that requires total body development.
  • Strong leg, hip, and core muscles are necessary to transfer power from the ground, up through the lower body, to the torso, and then the arm and hand to generate a fast, whipping ball release.
  • Weighted or medicine ball exercises can improve velocity.
  • This will improve generating power in the throwing muscles.
  • The objective is to build power utilizing a heavy and then a light load to build arm speed, and using proper form will improve throwing velocity safely.
  • Proper trunk rotation during arm cocking and strength and flexibility training should involve trunk rotational exercises to develop the obliques so that maximum arm speed can be generated.

Biomechanical Analysis

Video analysis of a player includes:

  • Pitching mechanics
  • Hitting mechanics
  • Fault correction
  • Feedback
  • Assessing progress

Mental and Emotional Skills

  • Mental and emotional skills training helps players deal with success, failure, and game pressure.
  • Players have to deal with consistent failure and remain confident.

Hitting Mistakes


Ellenbecker, Todd S, and Ryoki Aoki. “Step-by-Step Guide to Understanding the Kinetic Chain Concept in the Overhead Athlete.” Current reviews in musculoskeletal medicine vol. 13,2 (2020): 155-163. doi:10.1007/s12178-020-09615-1

Fleisig, Glenn S et al. “Biomechanical Analysis of Weighted-Ball Exercises for Baseball Pitchers.” Sports health vol. 9,3 (2017): 210-215. doi:10.1177/1941738116679816

Rhea, Matthew R, and Derek Bunker. “Baseball-specific conditioning.” International journal of sports physiology and performance vol. 4,3 (2009): 402-7. doi:10.1123/ijspp.4.3.402

Seroyer, Shane T et al. “The kinetic chain in overhand pitching: its potential role for performance enhancement and injury prevention.” Sports health vol. 2,2 (2010): 135-46. doi:10.1177/1941738110362656

Volleyball Strength Workout

Volleyball Strength Workout

Volleyball is a dynamic game that requires players to be fast on their feet. Players have to be able to quickly shift into various position/s, make quick movements in any direction quickly and reach the ball. Volleyball strength workouts focus on power development and maintaining safe positions when exploding through the plays. Many players include resistance training exercises in their training programs to maximize power and set a solid foundation.

Volleyball Strength Workout

Volleyball Strength Workout

A well-rounded volleyball workout will help players strengthen and maintain optimal body health.

Good Mornings

  • This exercise is ideal for gluteal strength, hamstring strength, and improving vertical jumps.
  • It is recommended to do three sets of 10 reps.

Single-Leg Roman Dead Lift to Overhead Press

  • This volleyball workout works the hamstrings and glutes.
  • Helps improve balance and increases jump strength.
  • It is recommended to do three sets of 10 reps.

Lunge With a Twist

  • This volleyball strength workout builds up the legs and stabilizes the ankles to reduce the risk of injury.
  • It also helps with single-leg jumps.
  • It is recommended to do three sets of 16 reps, 8 left – 8 right.

Dumbbell Snatch

  • The dumbbell snatch helps with jumping mechanics’ power development and improves explosiveness.
  • It is recommended to do three sets of 8 reps.

Bicep Curl to Overhead Press

  • This exercise helps prevent shoulder injuries.
  • Attackers develop secondary muscles that strengthen spiking.
  • It is recommended to do three sets of 8 reps.

Medicine Ball Throw Down

  • Another recommended resistance training exercise that can be done is medicine ball throwdowns.
  • The object is to throw a medicine ball down forcefully; the ball bounces, catch and repeat.
  • It is recommended to do two-four sets of 6-10 reps.

Band Reverse Lunge to Overhead Press

  • A recommended exercise that can be done with a resistance band.
  • The exercise does not require a lot of space, so it can be done almost anywhere.
  • It is recommended to do two-three sets of  10-15 reps.

It is recommended to consult a professional trainer that can create a diverse fitness program to make exercising/training/working out much more enjoyable.

Body Composition

How Aerobic and Resistance Training Interact

The body adjusts differently to various types of exercise. Aerobic and resistance training each tells the body to adapt in different ways. Both are important for healthy body composition, and when done in combination, it is known as concurrent training. Aerobic is best for losing fat, resistance training builds muscle that keeps the body functioning throughout the day. However, molecular mechanisms involved in aerobic and resistance adaptations can interfere with each other if not appropriately planned. Two steps to minimize any possible interference and maximize aerobic/resistance benefits:


  • Adequate protein intake is vital for muscular adaptation from resistance training.
  • It stimulates muscle protein synthesis after concurrent training.
  • After workout sessions, consume at least 25g of high-quality protein to achieve strength and hypertrophy improvements.


  • When doing both aerobic and resistance training on the same day, maximize recovery time between the sessions.
  • Strength and aerobic fitness gains are low when the two are separated by 6 hours or less.
  • Twenty-four hours between sessions is the recommended time, especially if the priority is on endurance.

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