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Lower Back Pain

Back Clinic Lower Back Pain Chiropractic Team. More than 80% of the population suffers from back pain at some point in their lives. Most cases can be linked to the most common causes: muscle strain, injury, or overuse. But it can also be attributed to a specific condition of the spine: Herniated Disc, Degenerative Disc Disease, Spondylolisthesis, Spinal Stenosis, and Osteoarthritis. Less common conditions are sacroiliac joint dysfunction, spinal tumors, fibromyalgia, and piriformis syndrome.

Pain is caused by damage or injury to the muscles and ligaments of the back. Dr. Alex Jimenez compiled articles outline the importance of understanding the causes and effects of this uncomfortable symptom. Chiropractic focuses on restoring a person’s strength and flexibility to help improve symptoms of lower back pain.

How Trigger Points Affect The Musculoskeletal System

How Trigger Points Affect The Musculoskeletal System


The body is a functional machine that consists of muscles, organs, and skeletal joints that play different parts in making the body healthy as possible. Each section has a casual relationship as they work together and do their jobs separately. The muscles provide protection and movement from daily activities. The organs supply hormones, oxygen, and nutrients, so the body’s internal functions work correctly. And finally, the skeletal joints help with mobility and stabilization for the body to stay upright. When environmental factors or traumatic injuries affect the body, many issues over time may cause damage, and the body may develop pain-related symptoms. Today’s article examines how the musculoskeletal system works in the body, how trigger points affect the musculoskeletal system, and how chiropractic care can help alleviate trigger point pain. We refer patients to certified providers specializing in musculoskeletal treatments to aid individuals suffering from muscle pain associated with trigger points. We also guide our patients by referring them to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is the solution to asking our providers insightful questions. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

11_Shah Role of Central Sensitization-compressed

How Does The Musculoskeletal System Works?


Have you been experiencing muscle stiffness in specific areas located in your body? Do you feel tenderness in your neck, shoulders, or back? Or do you feel knots along your muscles that are causing you pain? Some of these symptoms are associated with muscle pain in the musculoskeletal system. The musculoskeletal system in the body has muscles, ligaments, and connective tissues surrounding the skeletal joints. Studies reveal that the structure of the musculoskeletal system shows how the surrounding muscles protect the joints and help provide the body functionality. The various muscles in the body offer a range of motion, sensory-motor functions, reflexes, and strength when functioning normally. However, when environmental factors begin to affect the body over time, it can lead to musculoskeletal disorders associated with pain. Studies reveal that when the body succumbs to pain related to musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal disorders are a common issue that has affected many individuals worldwide and causes various disabilities and symptoms that affect the body. Some of the musculoskeletal disorder symptoms that affect the body include:

  • Burning sensations
  • Muscle twitches
  • Fatigue 
  • Stiffness and aching
  • Myofascial trigger pain


How Do Trigger Points Affect The Body?

One of the musculoskeletal symptoms associated with muscle pain is trigger points or myofascial pain. Myofascial pain is a common condition involving the muscles and surrounding connective tissues that may be acute or chronic depending on where the pain is located. While trigger points refer to hard palpable nodules in the taut bands of the skeletal muscle that can be active (causes spontaneous pain or abnormal sensory symptoms) or latent (causes no spontaneous pain but shows operational myofascial trigger points characteristics). Studies reveal that myofascial pain can be associated with muscle dysfunction, weakness, and limited range of motion that affects the body. A knot in the muscle in certain body areas can make the muscle hyperirritable, causing painful compression while invoking characteristic referred pain and autonomic phenomena in the body. To that point, it can be difficult for doctors to diagnose since trigger points are caused by traumatic events in the body and can occur in different spots in different people. Trigger points can form all over the body, including:

  • Neck 
  • Mid-back
  • Low back

One common characteristic when trigger points affect the body is that they can travel or even spread to the surrounding muscles.


Myofascial Pain Syndrome & Trigger Points- Video

Have you been feeling pain located in your neck, back, or particular areas in your body? What about feeling pain in a different location of your body? Or have you experienced muscle stiffness or tenderness in certain areas of your body? If you have been experiencing these symptoms associated with muscle pain, you could be dealing with trigger point pain or myofascial pain in your musculoskeletal system. The video above explains myofascial pain and trigger points and how they affect the body. Studies reveal that myofascial pain is caused by myofascial trigger points that produce exquisitely tender spots in the taut bands of hardened muscles. To that point, it stimulates local and referred pain amongst other sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms. Myofascial trigger points can cause stiffness and weakness in the involved muscle, making it difficult to diagnose since it can cause pain in different body areas. Fortunately, there are ways to alleviate trigger point pain associated with myofascial pain syndrome from the body.

How Chiropractic Care Alleviates Trigger Point Pain


Since myofascial trigger point pain can be challenging to diagnose, it can range from neck to low back pain in different locations and mimic other pain conditions that affect the body. It can affect the body to become hypersensitive and hyperirritable while decreasing a person’s overall sense of well-being. Luckily, treatments like chiropractic care can help alleviate trigger point pain and help manage myofascial pain syndrome. Chiropractic care is not just for the skeletal system but can help relieve muscle pain associated with myofascial pain. Since the muscles are layered and interwoven around the joints, they play an integral part in supporting the body. Studies reveal that chiropractors are great at finding trigger points and utilize specific exercises and physical modalities to treat myofascial pain syndrome symptoms. Some of the benefits chiropractic care use include:

  • Breaking up scar tissue
  • Applying pressure on the trigger point
  • Aligning the spine to reduce the spinal subluxation
  • Ease muscle pain



The body consists of muscles, organs, and joints in a casual relationship that helps function and stabilizes the host. The musculoskeletal system has muscles, tissues, and ligaments that are interwoven and layered, surrounding the skeletal joints to prevent injuries or traumatic events from affecting the body. When the body does suffer from damages caused by traumatic events, it can lead to a musculoskeletal disorder known as myofascial pain or trigger pain. Trigger pain is when the muscles have knots along taut bands of the muscle that can cause muscle stiffness and pain. Trigger point pain can be challenging to diagnose since the pain can travel from one location to another section of the body. This is referred pain, and myofascial trigger pain can mimic other chronic musculoskeletal symptoms. Treatments like chiropractic care can help alleviate myofascial trigger pain through spinal manipulation and trigger point therapy, thus relieving the stiff muscle causing pain. Incorporating treatments like chiropractic care can help loosen stiff muscles, increase joint range of motion and bring a person’s wellness back.



Bron, Carel, and Jan D Dommerholt. “Etiology of Myofascial Trigger Points.” Current Pain and Headache Reports, Current Science Inc., Oct. 2012,

Morgan, William. “Chiropractic Treatment for Myofascial Pain Syndrome.” Spine, Spine-Health, 24 Sept. 2014,

Murphy, Andrew C, et al. “Structure, Function, and Control of the Human Musculoskeletal Network.” PLoS Biology, Public Library of Science, 18 Jan. 2018,

Shah, Jay P, et al. “Myofascial Trigger Points Then and Now: A Historical and Scientific Perspective.” PM & R : the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation, U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2015,

Vilella, Renato C, and Anil Kumar Reddy Reddivari. “Musculoskeletal Examination.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 8 Sept. 2021,


Aqua Therapy For Low Back Pain

Aqua Therapy For Low Back Pain


When it comes to the body, many factors can cause low back pain without a person knowing they encounter it. Simple actions like sitting, standing, and walking can be difficult or helpful, depending on the person’s actions. Since low back pain tends to vary from person to person and the possible factors that can cause low back pain make diagnosing a bit difficult. Fortunately, there are available treatments that can help manage low back pain symptoms and can help alleviate its associated symptoms in the body. Today’s article examines the causes and symptoms of low back pain, aqua therapy for low back pain, and how chiropractic care goes hand in hand with aqua therapy. We refer patients to certified providers specializing in musculoskeletal treatments and hydrotherapy to help many individuals with low back pain. We also guide our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is the solution to asking our providers insightful questions. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

Journal of Neuro Imaging

The Causes Of Low Back Pain


Have you been feeling aches along the sides of your back? Do you feel stiff when hunched over for an extended period? Or does sitting down make the pain go away or worsen? Many of these factors are associated with signs that you could be suffering from low back pain. Low back pain is considered the leading disability causes worldwide, as studies reveal, which can be influenced by many factors that a person is going through. Anyone can risk developing low back pain as it can derive from different sources that overlap many potential issues. Some of the causes associated with low back pain vary depending on how severely the factors affect the individual, which includes:

  • Muscle and ligament sprain (Overused muscles and ligaments from injuries, poor posture, or lifting heavy objects)
  • Herniated discs/ degenerative disc disease (Spinal nerve root compression)
  • Joint dysfunction (Cartilage begins to wear down)
  • Spinal stenosis 
  • Trauma
  • Deformity
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Fractures


The Symptoms

When it comes to the symptoms of low back pain, many individuals will experience pain ranging from a dull ache to a sudden shooting burning pain that travels down the legs. Many individuals often feel pain from one location of the lower half of the body; instead, it is located on the other side, known as referred pain. Low back pain can potentially mean that another issue is affecting the body. Some of the symptoms associated with low back pain include:

  • Muscle stiffness
  • Sciatica
  • Muscle spasms
  • Limited mobility on the hips and pelvis
  • Inflammation
  • Muscle tenderness

All is not lost, as treatments are available to manage low back pain symptoms and alleviate the body’s pain.

Aqua Therapy For Spine Health-Video

Have you been experiencing muscle stiffness in your lower back? Do hip pain and sciatic symptoms cause mobility issues in your legs? Or does it hurt when you are bending down to pick something up? You could be dealing with low back pain associated with chronic symptoms affecting the body, so why not try aqua therapy? The video above demonstrates what aqua therapy does to the body and the exercises used to relieve low back pain. Studies reveal that the therapeutic purposes of water have dated back to ancient Egypt, Greek, and Roman civilization; that helps cleanse the body from ailments. Many physical therapists utilize aqua therapy to enable individuals with low back pain. Aqua therapy engages the waters, buoyancy, resistance, and hydrostatic pressure that helps rehabilitate injuries and maintain health. 

Aqua Therapy For Low Back Pain


Many individuals that suffer from low back pain will try to find ways to alleviate the pain. Aqua therapy is one available treatment that doesn’t strain the lower back and has therapeutic properties. Studies reveal that the beneficial properties of aqua therapy allow the body to improve muscle strength and range of motion while reducing muscle fatigue by using water buoyancy to take the pressure off the spine. Since low back pain is a common health issue associated with environmental factors for many individuals, studies reveal that water buoyancy can eliminate the gravitational forces impacting the body weight by counteracting it. To that point, this reduces joint stress on the body to perform the water aerobic exercises with ease. Individuals who incorporate aqua therapy in their health and wellness journey may be more motivated to exercise in the water without worrying about constant pain.


Aqua Therapy Goes Hand In Hand With Chiropractic Care

Like any treatment, chiropractic care and aqua therapy have an excellent relationship as they work together to assess and analyze the individual’s problem and devise a plan for them. Chiropractors utilize spinal manipulation to determine where the pain is located. So when a person is dealing with low back pain due to spinal subluxation or misalignment, a chiropractor can help the individual by loosening the stiff muscles and increasing the range of motion back to the spine. At the same time, aqua therapy incorporates the same benefits associated with land-based physical therapy, including a treatment plan tailored to the individual. Chiropractors and physical therapists work together to determine the best possible action to speed up the recovery process when it comes to a person’s pain, giving them the best chance to get back their quality of life.



Low back pain is one of many individuals’ most common complaints worldwide. The many factors associated with low back pain vary and range from a dull ache to a sharp pain radiating down the legs as part of the symptoms of low back pain. Treatments like aqua therapy can help take the load off the spine through water buoyancy and can help reduce the stress on the joints in the lumbar spine while reducing muscle fatigue. Combined with chiropractic care, many individuals can recover faster from their low back pain and bring back their quality of life without being in so much pain.



Abadi, Fariba Hossein, et al. “The Effect of Aquatic Exercise Program on Low-Back Pain Disability in Obese Women.” Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, Korean Society of Exercise Rehabilitation, 31 Dec. 2019,

Allegri, Massimo, et al. “Mechanisms of Low Back Pain: A Guide for Diagnosis and Therapy.” F1000Research, F1000Research, 28 June 2016,

Carayannopoulos, Alexios G, et al. “The Benefits of Combining Water and Land-Based Therapy.” Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, Korean Society of Exercise Rehabilitation, 26 Feb. 2020,

Cole, Andrew, and Bruce Becker. “Water Therapy Exercise Program.” Spine, Spine-Health, 26 Feb. 2010,


Ways to Improve Hip & Pelvic Pain With Chiropractic

Ways to Improve Hip & Pelvic Pain With Chiropractic


The skeletal joints can keep the body upright and stabilized while protecting the internal organs. The skeletal joints also are at risk of factors (normal and traumatic) that can impact the body, thus potentially causing painful symptoms to affect different body areas. Hip pain is among the most common complaints for many individuals, especially the elderly. To that point, when the body suffers from hip pain, it may involve pelvic pain and associated symptoms that mimic other issues within the body. Today’s article examines the causes of hip and pelvic pain, the symptoms related to hip and pelvic pain, and how chiropractic care may relieve hip and pelvic pain. We refer patients to certified providers specializing in osteopathic treatments to help many individuals with hip and pelvic pain. We also guide our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is the solution to asking our providers insightful questions. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

Pain Practice

The Causes Of Hip & Pelvic Pain

Do you experience stiffness located on your low back or hips? What about sciatic nerve pain that travels down your legs? Or have you been experiencing cramping around the pelvic regions of your body? Experiencing these symptoms may be the potential cause that you might be dealing with hip and pelvic pain. Even though hip pain is often associated with older individuals, it can affect many individuals of different ages. Studies reveal that the pathologies outside the hips may be the cause and referred pain, making diagnosing hip pain difficult. Hip pain causes could be overused joints and soft tissues that support the hips due to repetitive motions, strain from the multiple muscles that support the hips, or arthritic symptoms. Studies reveal that individuals who work in a desk job will potentially develop low back pain due to prolonged sitting, thus becoming associated with excessive mobility of the lumbar spine and decreased hip joint mobility. 



Individuals with hip pain could risk developing pelvic pain associated with the overuse of joints and soft tissues. Now how pelvic pain correlates with hip pain, and what’s the causation? Studies reveal that the stabilizing muscles (iliopsoas, pectineus, obturator externus, gluteus minimus, and piriformis muscles) are overworked and become consequent hip and joint destabilization. This causes the affected muscles to become tired and weak and triggers sciatic nerve compression along the piriformis muscle. Pelvic pain associated with hip pain may cause dysfunctional musculoskeletal symptoms along the lower abdominals, hips, and lumbosacral back.


The Associated Symptoms Of Hip & Pelvic Pain

The factors involved with hip and pelvic pain could potentially have associated symptoms that might affect the body’s lower extremities. One of the most prominent symptoms of hip pain is groin pain, which could possibly be involved with pelvic pain since the ligaments and muscles that encompass the hips and groin may be weak and overused. Sometimes various underlying causes do contribute to hip and pelvic pain, causing associated symptoms that may confuse the individual in pain. Hip and pelvic pain may refer to low back and sciatic nerve pain since the lower spine and hips are close together; thus, pinpointing where the true source of pain is in the body’s lower half makes it confusing. Some of the symptoms associated with hip and pelvic pain include:

  • Low back pain
  • Muscle weakness
  • Sacroiliac joint dysfunction
  • Bladder issues
  • Sciatic nerve pain
  • Piriformis syndrome


The 3 Common Causes Of Hip Pain-Video

Have you been dealing with muscle stiffness around or along your hips and lower back? Do you have bladder issues? Or have you experienced muscle weakness in the lower extremities of your body? Some of these symptoms could be associated with hip and pelvic pain. The video above explains the three common causes of hip pain, and interestingly, one of the causes of hip pain could potentially involve the lower back. Studies reveal that since the low back and hips are close to each other, alterations in the lumbopelvic region could potentially be involved with low back pain. Some of the issues associated with the alterations in the lumbopelvic area include:

  • Limited range of motion on hip rotation 
  • Tissue injury
  • Stiff joint capsules
  • Micro/macro trauma

Fortunately, hip and pelvic pain management may help alleviate referred pain issues through chiropractic care.

Chiropractic Relief For Hip & Pelvic Pain


Individuals dealing with hip and pelvic pain may find relief through chiropractic care. The pelvis is a direct continuation of the spine as the sacrum (the five lowest fused vertebrae) and the pelvic girdle complex interact with the joints from the lower skeletal system. If there is pain in the lower body and the individual is unsure whether it is their back or hips, their first course of action is to visit their primary doctor or a chiropractor. Afterward, they will review the individual’s medical history while performing a series of physical exams like various movements to make an accurate diagnosis. Once the pain diagnosis is identified, chiropractors utilize total body alignment by restoring balance in the pelvis and the spine through manipulation. When the spine and hips suffer from a subluxation, it can cause unnecessary strain on the surrounding muscles around the spine and hips. To that point, realigning the spine from a chiropractic adjustment could reduce or eliminate the excessive stress affecting the surrounding muscles. Chiropractic care can also promote various therapies that increase balance along the hips and pelvic region, which include:

  • Stretching
  • Therapeutic massage
  • Physical activities/Exercise therapy
  • Nutrition

Whether the pain is located in the hips, low back, or pelvic regions, chiropractic care can help restore, address, and alleviate the pain while maintaining optimal long-lasting results.



The skeletal joints can help keep the body upright and stabilized while protecting the internal organs from normal and traumatic factors. When these factors begin to cause an impact on the body, the skeletal joints are at risk of developing pain along the musculoskeletal structure. Hip and pelvic pain have an overlapping relationship as they are amongst the most common complaints for many individuals. To that point, pain from the hips or the pelvic may mimic other issues associated with chronic disorders. Incorporating treatments like chiropractic care can help alleviate, address, and restore the body through spinal manipulation. This allows individuals to be pain-free and help restore balance in their joints.



Harris-Hayes, Marcie, et al. “Relationship between the Hip and Low Back Pain in Athletes Who Participate in Rotation-Related Sports.” Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Feb. 2009,

Lee, Dae Wook, et al. “Chronic Pelvic Pain Arising from Dysfunctional Stabilizing Muscles of the Hip Joint and Pelvis.” The Korean Journal of Pain, The Korean Pain Society, Oct. 2016,

Luthra, Jatinder Singh, et al. “Understanding Painful Hip in Young Adults: A Review Article.” Hip & Pelvis, Korean Hip Society, Sept. 2019,

Nishimura, Takaaki, and Ryo Miyachi. “Relationship between Low Back Pain and Lumbar and Hip Joint Movement in Desk Workers.” Journal of Physical Therapy Science, The Society of Physical Therapy Science, Oct. 2020,


An Overview Of Polymyalgia Rheumatica

An Overview Of Polymyalgia Rheumatica


The body is exposed to various environmental factors daily. Whether it is the environment that a person is living, the foods being consumed, or the level of physical activities a person has plays a part in the body. Many individuals that want to live a healthier lifestyle will start small by incorporating nutritious foods they can add, sticking to an exercise regime they might enjoy, and finding time to meditate. Those who don’t want to change their lifestyle habits will continue eating foods that are high in fats, not exercising enough, or have problems sleeping. Over time, the body will be at risk of developing autoimmune disorders associated with musculoskeletal symptoms when exposed to environmental factors that impact a person’s lifestyle. Today’s article looks at an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammatory effects on the joints, known as polymyalgia rheumatica, the symptoms associated with this disorder, and how chiropractic care can help manage the symptoms of polymyalgia rheumatica. We refer patients to certified providers specializing in autoimmune treatments to help many individuals with autoimmune diseases associated with musculoskeletal disorders. We also guide our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is the solution to asking our providers insightful questions. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

10_Kaplan Redefining Chronic Pain

What Is Polymyalgia Rheumatica?


Have you been experiencing pain along your shoulders, neck, hips, or thighs? Does your body feel stiff in the morning and better throughout the day? Or have you been experiencing a limited range of motion in certain areas of your body? Many of these symptoms are signs that you might be at risk of developing polymyalgia rheumatica in your joints. Polymyalgia rheumatica is defined as a rheumatic disorder that is common in elderly adults over the age of 50. Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory musculoskeletal disorder that induces muscle pain and stiffness around the joints, especially in the morning. Studies reveal that polymyalgia rheumatica is often characterized by aching muscle pain in the shoulders, pelvis, and neck; it can mimic other rheumatic diseases like RA (rheumatoid arthritis), SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus), and polymyositis. When the body is dealing with the inflammatory effects of polymyalgia rheumatica, many people believe they are dealing with a different disorder affecting their bodies. To that point, diagnosing polymyalgia rheumatica is difficult.


The Symptoms Associated With Polymyalgia Rheumatica

Since polymyalgia rheumatica can mimic other rheumatic diseases, some of the symptoms associated with this inflammatory musculoskeletal disorder are similar to other chronic common diseases in the body. Studies reveal that the cause of polymyalgia is unknown, but environmental and genetic factors contribute to this inflammatory disease. Another disease that shares similar symptoms with polymyalgia is a disease known as giant cell arteritis. Giant cell arteritis causes inflammatory effects along the lining of the arteries, and individuals with this disease may have polymyalgia rheumatica. Some of the symptoms associated with polymyalgia rheumatica include:

  • Shoulder pain
  • Pelvic pain
  • Limited range of motion
  • Muscle stiffness
  • Joint pain
  • Inflammation
  • Neck pain


An Overview Of Polymyalgia Rheumatica- Video

Have you been experiencing pain in some regions of your body, like the shoulders, pelvis, and neck? Do you feel muscle stiffness every morning, but does it get better throughout the day? Have you been dealing with joint inflammation? If you have been experiencing these musculoskeletal symptoms, you might be at risk of developing polymyalgia rheumatica. The video above gives an insightful overview of what polymyalgia is and the symptoms associated with this inflammatory musculoskeletal disorder. Polymyalgia rheumatica is an auto-inflammatory musculoskeletal disorder that affects many adults over 50 and causes muscle stiffness in the body’s neck, shoulder, and pelvic regions. This inflammatory musculoskeletal disorder does mimic other rheumatic disorders like RA (rheumatoid arthritis) and lupus. The symptoms associated with polymyalgia rheumatica are generally similar to other common chronic disorders, making diagnosis challenging to pinpoint. Luckily there are ways to manage polymyalgia rheumatica and its associated musculoskeletal symptoms.

Managing Polymyalgia Rheumatica With Chiropractic Care


Since the body is dealing with symptoms from polymyalgia rheumatica is challenging to diagnose since it mimics other rheumatic disorders and their associated symptoms. When the body is suffering from joint pain associated with polymyalgia rheumatica, the surrounding muscles, and ligaments that help stabilize the joints become inflamed and cause discomfort to the body. Fortunately, treatments like chiropractic care are available to help manage the joint inflammation associated with polymyalgia rheumatica. Chiropractic care utilizes spinal manipulation of the body by manipulating spinal subluxation or misalignment of the joints. Spinal manipulation helps the body relax and incorporates healing properties into the inflamed joints. Chiropractic care helps loosen up the stiff muscles and ligaments surrounding the joints to reduce pressure on the nerves and help bring the range of motion back to the joints. Many individuals who incorporate chiropractic care to help manage musculoskeletal symptoms associated with rheumatic disorders like polymyalgia rheumatica will be pain-free on their wellness journey.



Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory musculoskeletal disorder common in elderly adults that induces muscle pain and stiffness around the joints. This inflammatory musculoskeletal disorder affects the shoulder, neck, and pelvic region while mimicking other rheumatic disorders like RA (rheumatoid arthritis) and lupus. Since the body is exposed to various environmental daily, over time may be at risk of developing autoimmune diseases associated with musculoskeletal symptoms that can impact the individual. To that point, making it difficult to diagnose. Fortunately, treatments like chiropractic care can help manage the musculoskeletal symptoms associated with polymyalgia rheumatica. Chiropractic care can help reduce stiff joint inflammation by manipulating the body, causing the aching muscles to relax and increase their range of motion. Utilizing chiropractic care can help a person get back to their health and wellness journey.



Acharya, Saurav, and Rina Musa. “Polymyalgia Rheumatica – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 21 June 2022,

Al-Kaabi, Juma, et al. “Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Mimicking Polymyalgia Rheumatica in a Young Patient.” Oman Medical Journal, OMJ, July 2008,

Michet, Clement J, and Eric L Matteson. “Polymyalgia Rheumatica.” BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), BMJ Publishing Group Ltd., 5 Apr. 2008,

Milchert, Marcin, and Marek Brzosko. “Diagnosis of Polymyalgia Rheumatica Usually Means a Favourable Outcome for Your Patient.” The Indian Journal of Medical Research, Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd, May 2017,


The Role Of Central Sensitization In Myofascial Pain Syndrome

The Role Of Central Sensitization In Myofascial Pain Syndrome


The muscles, tissues, and ligaments help stabilize the joints and structure of the spine so that the body can function. These muscles are layered and interwoven in the spine and joints that help facilitate movement. When the body suffers from injuries or traumatic events, the muscles, tissues, and ligaments become affected, causing muscle pain and discomfort. This causes the muscles to be tender to the touch and sensitive. This is known as myofascial pain syndrome. Today’s article looks at myofascial pain syndrome, how it is linked with central sensitization, and ways to manage myofascial pain syndrome. We refer patients to certified providers specializing in musculoskeletal treatments to help many individuals with myofascial pain syndrome associated with central sensitization. We also guide our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is the solution to asking our providers insightful questions. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

11_Shah Role of Central Sensitization-compressed

What Is Myofascial Pain Syndrome?


Have you been experiencing muscle tightness in different areas of your body? Have you felt your muscles tender to the touch? Or have you been having trouble sleeping? Many of these overlapping risk factors are signs that you might have myofascial pain syndrome. The term “myofascial” is split into two parts. “Myo” refers to the muscles, while “fascia” refers to the connective tissues found throughout the body. So myofascial pain syndrome is where there is muscle pain in various forms, which includes the muscle tissues, connective tissues, or both. Studies reveal that myofascial pain syndrome originates from trigger points in the skeletal muscle, causing the affected muscle to be in pain. The trigger points in the body’s skeletal muscles are the “knots” people feel when their muscles feel tight. These trigger points are challenging to identify because they occur in different areas causing referred pain (pain in one place but in another body area). 


How Central Sensitization Link To Myofascial Pain Syndrome?

Studies reveal that central sensitization in the body is represented as an enhancement in neuron function and circuits in the nociceptive pathways that increases membrane excitability and synaptic efficacy. To that point, it reduces inhibition and manifests the remarkable plasticity of the somatosensory nervous system. The nociceptor inputs can trigger and manifest central sensitization as pain hypersensitivity when the body suffers from an injury. So how is central sensitization linked to myofascial pain syndrome? Let’s use fibromyalgia as an example. Many individuals dealing with myofascial pain may be potentially involved with fibromyalgia. This is due to fibromyalgia being a chronic condition that features widespread pain, and this causes the body to be more sensitive to pain. Central sensitization linked to myofascial pain syndrome can mimic fibromyalgia symptoms in the body, causing muscle pain and discomfort. 


An Overview Of Myofascial Pain Syndrome-Video

Are you experiencing muscle weakness or soreness in some regions of your body? Have you dealt with chronic fatigue or poor sleep quality? Or have you been dealing with headaches constantly throughout the entire day? Many of these symptoms are signs that you might be at risk of developing myofascial pain syndrome. The video above explains myofascial pain syndrome, the symptoms, and the causes that affect the body. Studies reveal that myofascial pain has two types of trigger points:

  • Active trigger points associated with muscle pain without movement
  • Latent trigger points associated with muscle pain with movement

Myofascial pain syndrome can vary in acute or chronic forms and can range from mild to severe while being in different locations, making it very difficult to pinpoint where the pain is localized. Fortunately, there are ways to manage myofascial pain syndrome in the body that can help with the pain.

Ways To Manage Myofascial Pain Syndrome


When managing myofascial pain syndrome, many individuals dealing with muscle pain will take pain medication to alleviate it; however, that only minimizes the pain for a short period. One way to manage myofascial pain syndrome is by utilizing chiropractic care as part of treatment. Chiropractic care is non-invasive and often the preferred treatment for individuals with myofascial pain syndrome due to its effectiveness and drug-free approach. Chiropractors are not only good at finding the trigger points, but they are good when it comes to treating them using various techniques. Studies reveal that chiropractors use direct pressure on the trigger points to relieve the pain with their hands or specific tools. Incorporating chiropractic care provides the body with an increase in muscle strength, flexibility, and range of motion. Since chiropractic care is a whole-body approach, it allows many people with myofascial pain syndrome to have a better quality of life and learn healthy habits, which include diet, exercise, and mental health, while living with less or no pain at all.



The body has muscles, tissues, and ligaments that help stabilize the joints and structure of the body, so there is functionality. These muscles help facilitate movement since the muscles are interwoven in the spine and joints. When the body suffers from a traumatic event or an injury, the muscles, tissues, and ligaments become affected. This causes muscle pain and discomfort, known as myofascial pain, where the trigger points cause pain in the body and can occur in different areas. Myofascial pain can be challenging to diagnose since it can be on one side of the body but affects a different section, known as referred pain. Fortunately, treatments like chiropractic care can help manage myofascial pain by treating the pain and using direct pressure to alleviate the pain. Incorporating chiropractic care to manage myofascial pain can help many individuals be pain-free on their health and wellness journey.



Bordoni, Bruno, et al. “Myofascial Pain – Statpearls – NCBI Bookshelf.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 18 July 2022,

Desai, Mehul J, et al. “Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Treatment Review.” Pain and Therapy, Springer Healthcare, June 2013,

Latremoliere, Alban, and Clifford J Woolf. “Central Sensitization: A Generator of Pain Hypersensitivity by Central Neural Plasticity.” The Journal of Pain, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Sept. 2009,

Morgan, William. “Chiropractic Treatment for Myofascial Pain Syndrome.” Spine, Spine-Health, 24 Sept. 2014,


A Look Into Pilates For Back Pain

A Look Into Pilates For Back Pain


Many people worldwide know that exercising has impressive benefits that help improve the body’s overall wellness. The body has different muscle groups that have a casual relationship with the vital organs inside the body. Organs like the heart, lungs, gut, and bladder correlate with the different muscles through the nerve roots that connect them. When the body suffers from various factors that affect it, it causes referred pain to the body where one pain is at one location but radiates from the other side. Exercising can help the body recover through physical rehabilitation by reducing inflammation and scarring on the muscle tissues. One of the many exercises that helps strengthen the muscles, increase flexibility, and even improve posture is Pilates. Today’s article looks at Pilates, its benefits, and how it can help alleviate back pain. We refer patients to certified providers specializing in musculoskeletal treatments to help many individuals with low back pain issues affecting their bodies. We also guide our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is the solution to asking our providers insightful questions. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer


What Is Pilates?


Have you been feeling sluggish or having low energy throughout the entire day? What about experiencing pain in your lower back? Have you experienced muscle stiffness in certain areas around your body? Many of these symptoms are associated with musculoskeletal issues that correlate with different factors that affect the body; why not try an exercise regime like Pilates? Pilates is a system of exercises that uses a particular machine or body to improve a person’s physical strength and posture while increasing the body’s flexibility and enhancing mental awareness. Joseph Pilates developed Pilates in the early 20th century as an exercise program to help World War I soldiers improve their physical fitness levels. Pilates was used as rehabilitation therapy for injured individuals by incorporating resistance, stretching, and target muscle strengthening. Pilates is now utilized for all individuals with different bodies and fitness levels and can provide tremendous benefits. 


What Are The Benefits?

Pilates, like any other form of exercise, has many beneficial properties that help improve a person’s health and wellness. Studies reveal that Pilates helps many individuals, including older adults, by improving their posture by decreasing thoracic flexion while increasing lumbar extension for pain relief. Some of the beneficial properties that Pilates offer to the body include:

  • Increasing core strength: The deep muscles in the abdomen, back, and pelvic regions become stronger and help stabilize the body more.
  • Strengthen muscle groups: Pilates helps make the muscles not only strong but also helps stretch them so that they can look long and lean. This makes the individual look toned.
  • It’s a whole body workout: As many exercises work on specific body parts, Pilates focuses on each muscle part of the body and helps muscle development.
  • Posture Improvement: Pilates help keep the spine aligned while strengthening the body and core. Over time a person’s posture will improve naturally, making them stand taller, stronger, and even more graceful.
  • Increases energy: Like all exercises, Pilates will give a person the energy boost they need. This is due to the focused breathing and increased blood circulation that stimulates the muscles and the spine.


Pilates Exercises For Back Pain-Video

Are you looking for a new exercise to tone your muscles? Have you been dealing with pain in your lower back? Do you have muscle weakness in some regions of your body? If you have been experiencing pain-related issues, why not try Pilates? The video above goes through a 10-minute Pilates workout for back pain. Studies reveal that non-specific low back pain is a highly prevalent condition many individuals associate with disability and work absence worldwide. Many environmental factors affect many individuals, causing them to suffer back issues. Pilates can help encourage many individuals to regain their health and wellness by incorporating core strength and stability while improving their posture.

Pilates Alleviate Back Pain


Many people don’t realize that some low back pain symptoms are related to poor posture. Poor posture can lead to associated symptoms of headaches, back pain, improper balance, and pelvic issues. What Pilates does is that it creates body awareness and helps improve the lower back muscles by strengthening them and relaxing the stiff muscles. Studies reveal that incorporating Pilates as physical therapy for individuals suffering from low back pain can help address the mental and physical pain aspects with core strengthening, flexibility, and relaxing the tense muscles. Many individuals should never put off exercising when it comes to back pain. Incorporating an exercise routine can benefit the body and prevent future injuries.



An exercise regime can provide many beneficial results for those looking for ways to be healthy, those suffering from injuries, or those who want to add something else to their workout routine. Pilates is one of those exercises that incorporates resistance, stretching, and muscle targeting as it is a full-body workout. Pilates is used in rehabilitation therapy for injured individuals and can provide tremendous benefits. Pilates can help many individuals with back issues associated with environmental factors like poor posture. Many individuals that utilize Pilates as part of their exercise regime will begin to feel stronger and healthier as their backs will thank them.



Baker, Sara. “Pilates Exercise for a Healthy Spine – Spineuniverse.” Spineuniverse, 28 Dec. 2019,

Kuo, Yi-Liang, et al. “Sagittal Spinal Posture after Pilates-Based Exercise in Healthy Older Adults.” Spine, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 May 2009,

Sorosky, Susan, et al. “Yoga and Pilates in the Management of Low Back Pain.” Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine, Humana Press Inc, Mar. 2008,

Yamato, Tiê P, et al. “Pilates for Low Back Pain.” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2 July 2015,


Diarrhea, Back Pain and Chiropractic Medical Care

Diarrhea, Back Pain and Chiropractic Medical Care

Experiencing low back pain and diarrhea can be a symptom of a viscerosomatic reflex, somatovisceral reflex, or a combination. A reflex is an involuntary response to nervous system stimulation. A doctor tapping below the knee causes the foot to kick forward is a basic example of a reflex. This is a somatovisceral or body organ reflex. Back pain could be from awkward posture, repetitive motions like bending or twisting, or injury that affects the spinal column. The effects could cause nerve compression and damage that can cause firing misinterpreted signals impacting/damaging internal organ function, causing pain and other symptoms.

However, the damage caused to the compressed/injured organ nerves can also cause back pain symptoms. This is a viscerosomatic or organ body reflex. One study found that a group of chiropractic patients dealing with low back pain also had increased bowel problems, even though there was no specific cause, link, or association between the two. Lower back pain and diarrhea may be completely unrelated, but if symptoms are recurring, there is an increased chance of an underlying medical issue.

Diarrhea and Back Pain: Chiropractic Medical Care

Chiropractic Medicine

Chiropractic medicine is founded on the nervous system’s control of the body’s organ systems, whose impulse signals travel through the spinal cord. Body systems include the muscles, bones, and all organs. Any problems with the spine and/or nerve changes from normal wear and tear, injury, or infection can affect signal transmissions that can alter system functions. Altered nerve conduction can impact overall health and is referred to as reflex pathways in the nervous system. A somatovisceral reflex is where the musculoskeletal system causes altered nerve conduction creating organ system dysfunction and/or illness. Diarrhea brought on by back pain is an example.

Causes Of Back Pain and Diarrhea


The appendix extends from the colon in the lower right abdomen. Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix. The pain usually appears near the belly button and spreads to the right side of the stomach. Some individuals’ appendix extends behind the colon, which can also cause low back pain. Symptoms include:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Inability to relieve gas
  • Constipation
  • Abdominal pain – Moderate to severe
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

Appendicitis can be life-threatening and requires immediate treatment; if left untreated, the condition can worsen within hours, causing a rupture that can leak through the abdominal cavity.

Fecal impaction

Fecal impaction is stools that have become hard, dry, and stuck in the rectum and can cause abdominal and low back pressure and pain. It is commonly caused by chronic constipation, which can be associated with dehydration, lack of fiber, physical inactivity, medication side effects, or long-term use of laxatives. Taking laxatives for a long time can cause the intestines to shut off automatic evacuation of the bowels. Although the condition is common in older individuals, it can happen to individuals of any age who experience chronic constipation. Symptoms can include:

  • Bloating
  • Cramping
  • Bladder pressure
  • Bladder incontinence
  • Leakage or sudden diarrhea after long-term constipation.
  • Rectal bleeding

Enteropathic arthritis

Enteropathic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease or IBD. Types include:

  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Crohn’s disease

Different arthritic diseases like ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis can cause symptoms like diarrhea and abdominal pain or be associated with developing inflammatory bowel disease. Varying symptoms depend on the bowel disease and arthritis type and include:

  • Fatigue
  • Cramping
  • Joint pain
  • Joint stiffness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Bloody diarrhea

Pancreatic Cancer

The symptoms of pancreatic cancer vary depending on the type, location, and cancer stage. Pancreatic cancers in the early stages usually don’t cause signs or symptoms. Possible symptoms can include:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Back pain
  • Poor appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Dark urine
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Jaundice

Chiropractic is ideal for addressing reflex issues. A doctor of chiropractic adjusts the spine to improve alignment, joint motion, and nerve energy transmission, improving nerve circulation/signal flow, which can help with unrelated health conditions. A chiropractor will locate any areas of spinal misalignment; once identified, a personalized treatment plan will return the correct alignment to the spine, enabling the nervous system to return to optimal function.

Decompression Spinal Non-Surgical


Sengupta, Jyoti N. “Visceral pain: the neurophysiological mechanism.” Handbook of experimental pharmacology,194 (2009): 31-74. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-79090-7_2

Walden, Anna L et al. “Bladder and bowel symptoms among adults presenting with low back pain to an academic chiropractic clinic: results of a preliminary study.” Journal of chiropractic medicine vol. 13,3 (2014): 178-87. doi:10.1016/j.jcm.2014.07.006

Wood, Jackie D. “Neuropathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders.” World journal of gastroenterology vol. 13,9 (2007): 1313-32. doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i9.1313

Low Back Pain Issues Masking Different Issues In The Body

Low Back Pain Issues Masking Different Issues In The Body


Everyone around the world has dealt with pain that makes them feel uncomfortable and has them place their hands on the location where the pain is originating in their bodies. Many factors can become issues in the body, like a poor, unhealthy lifestyle that causes problems in the gut system and develop painful symptoms that affect the intestines. Stressful events that cause headaches that affect the neck and upper back muscles or gut issues that cause discomfort in the abdominal and back region. All these issues are known as referred pain, where a person feels pain in one part of their body, but it is caused by a different source of pain in a different location. An example would be an individual with back pain, but the pain is originating in their abdominal organs. Today’s article looks at various issues that mask low back pain in the body, how organ issues mimic low back pain, and how to alleviate these issues affecting the body. We refer patients to certified providers specializing in gastroenterology and chiropractic treatments that help those with issues that affect their back and gut system. We also guide our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is the solution to asking our providers insightful questions. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

10 - Mullin SIBO SIFO

Different Issues Masking Low Back Pain

Have you experienced discomfort in your abdominal region causing pain in your lower back? How about pelvic issues that are causing bowel discomfort? Or constipation issues that are compressing the nerves in your lower back? These signs and symptoms correlate to visceral-somatic pain, defined as poorly localized pain characterized by irritated internal organs that cause muscle hypersensitivity from the same nerve. So what does this mean for a person experiencing back issues affecting their quality of life? Well, this might be an indication of the individual that might be suffering from gastrointestinal problems that are correlating to low back pain. Studies reveal any disturbances causing musculoskeletal or gastrointestinal complaints that could induce referred pain through the sympathetic nervous system. An example will be if the body suffers from infections from the kidneys that are associated with low back pain.

So how would the kidneys be associated with low back pain? What is the correlation? For example, a person is constantly eating foods with either a high salt content or a high protein in their system. These high food contents begin to form kidney stones in one or both organs, thus causing a sharp pain that triggers low back pain. As the kidney stones pass through the urinary tract, it administrates radiating pain to the body’s lower abdominal and pelvic region. Another example of issues that can mask low back is constipation in the abdominal area associated with pelvic dysfunction. How does this correlate to the lower back? Think of your abdominal organs overlapped by risk profiles associated with gut disorders. Signs like hypothyroidism, SIBO, celiac disease, or IBS can increase the risk associated with pelvic floor dysfunction, which causes bloating and constipation to the abdominal organs. These issues are co-morbidities to IBS as studies reveal that the pelvic floor and abdominal muscles are co-activated to increase spine stability and intra-abdominal pressure. Now it may seem not a bad thing to the body unless the individual is constantly standing for an extended period or is obese, thus becoming a mediator for the host to suffer from low back pain while being associated with pelvic dysfunction.

Organ Issues Mimicking Low Back Pain- Video

Have you been feeling muscle tenderness in the lower extremities of your body? How about gut issues that are associated with low back pain? Or are you feeling bowel dysfunction in your pelvic region? All these issues correlate to viscerosomatic pain, where the infected organ is causing issues to the muscle in a different location. The video above explains how various organ issues can mimic spinal and back pain in the body. One of the examples that the video explains is how kidney infections are associated with back pain. Studies reveal that visceral pain originating from the upper urinary tract coincidently correlates with the characteristics of referred pain and changes in the somatic tissues of the body.

Alleviating Issues Affecting The Body

Say an individual is suffering from low back pain issues; as they get their mandatory examination, they explain to their physician about their low back pain and what is happening. Once the suffering individual is situated, the physician begins to look over the body where the pain is located, either by physical examination or through the intake form they are looking over. So what does this implicates in the body? Well, studies have revealed that systemic pathologies of the visceral organs can mimic or mask musculoskeletal pain. An example would be someone who is experiencing gastrointestinal issues in their gut, and it’s triggering muscle spasms in the back. This causes the nerve roots to be hypersensitive to the visceral organs and increases the risk associated with low back pain.



Dealing with pain is no joke, primarily when the pain is located in a different body region. Sometimes the pain can be an organ issue that mimics muscle pain in the back. This is known as viscero-somatic pain, defined where infected organs are either mimicking or triggering muscle issues in different body locations. This causation is usually due to various factors like unhealthy lifestyle habits affecting the visceral organs and affecting the muscles that correspond to the organs, like IBS issues affecting the lower back. Available treatments are there to figure out what problems affect the body and provide a better understanding to alleviate them.



Basso, Francesca Lo, et al. “Manual Treatment for Kidney Mobility and Symptoms in Women with Nonspecific Low Back Pain and Urinary Infections.” De Gruyter, De Gruyter, 1 May 2021,

Bussey, Melanie Dawn, et al. “Is Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Associated with Development of Transient Low Back Pain during Prolonged Standing? A Protocol.” Clinical Medicine Insights. Women’s Health, SAGE Publications, 27 May 2019,

J;, Stowell T;Cioffredi W;Greiner A;Cleland. “Abdominal Differential Diagnosis in a Patient Referred to a Physical Therapy Clinic for Low Back Pain.” The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Nov. 2005,

Lacy, Brian E, et al. “Management of Chronic Abdominal Distension and Bloating.” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : the Official Clinical Practice Journal of the American Gastroenterological Association, 1 Apr. 2020,

PJ;, Pedersen KV;Drewes AM;Frimodt-Møller PC;Osther. “Visceral Pain Originating from the Upper Urinary Tract.” Urological Research, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 16 May 2010,


Alleviating Lumbar Pinched Nerves With Decompression

Alleviating Lumbar Pinched Nerves With Decompression


The back and spine are bound to the musculoskeletal system, where they work together to keep the entire body moving and upright. The back muscles surround the spine along with the nerve roots, blood vessels, and tissues that help the back to be able to bend, twist, sit, and stand without any injuries or feeling pain. However, as the body ages naturally, so do the back muscles. They are strained and overused from strenuous activities that can injure the back muscles and pressure the nerve roots, causing them to be irritated. Fortunately, some treatments can help alleviate the stress of the nerve roots and relax the back muscles by loosening them up. Today’s article will focus on the lumbar pinched nerves, their symptoms, and how decompression therapy can help alleviate the symptoms of lumbar pinched nerves for many individuals. By referring patients to qualified and skilled providers specializing in spinal decompression therapy. To that end, and when appropriate, we advise our patients to refer to our associated medical providers based on their examination. We find that education is the key to asking valuable questions to our providers. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer


Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

G-11 - Decompression and Sensory nerves

What Are Lumbar Pinched Nerves?


Feeling a sharp, sudden pain in your lower back? How about stiff muscles that feel overused after just picking something heavy? How about burning throbbing pain that travels down the legs? You might be suffering from lumbar pinched nerves, which can affect your quality of life. Research studies have mentioned that lumbar pinched nerves are primarily associated with low back pain and are among the most common complaints about many suffering individuals. Low back pain can cause degeneration of the vertebrae disc and constantly irritate the nerve roots spread out on the lumbar area in the spine. The lumbar spinal nerve roots will experience uncomfortable signals like pain, numbness, and tingling sensations that can cause on and off signals that irritate the nerve roots to cause radicular symptoms. Other research studies have found that radicular pain can cause irritating pain alongside the lumbar nerve root without any neurological involvement causing the sensory fibers to be numb. This will cause unwanted sensations to the lower back down the legs. 


The Symptoms

Research studies have stated that since radicular pain is one of the many reasons for low back pain, it can affect the nerve roots, depending on the severity. When the nerve roots are being compressed and start by sending on again off again signals, it can range from mild numbing pain that can cause numbing sensations to burning stinging pain that can cause motor dysfunction in the lower back. Some of the other symptoms that are caused by lumbar pinched nerves can include:

Spinal Decompression For Pinched Nerves-Video

Feeling a sharp burning pain radiating from the lower back down to the leg? How about feeling your foot has fallen asleep, and you can’t shake it off? Or have you lost the sensation in your lower back? These are all symptoms of lumbar pinched nerves that are associated with chronic low back pain. The best way to take the pressure off these irritated nerves is spinal decompression. The video explained how there are many techniques that spinal decompression has to offer when dealing with a variety of back issues like herniated discssciatica, low back pain, and even pinched nerves in the lumbar area of the spine. Spinal decompression can help relieve the pressure off the nerve roots that are branched out of the spine and relieve the symptoms causing pain. Suppose you want to learn more about decompression and how it can benefit you in alleviating pinched nerves on the lower back? This link will explain what it does for the lumbar area in the spine and provide relief to the back nerve roots.

How Decompression Therapy Can Help Lumbar Pinched Nerves


Since low back pain is associated with lumbar pinched nerves, various treatments can help take the painful symptoms away, and one of these treatments is spinal decompression. Research studies have mentioned that spinal decompression is a type of traction treatment that follows the fundamental goal and principle of relieving pain by using negative pressure. What this negative pressure does is that it causes any herniated or bulging discs to be repositioned and causes an influx of healing substances to come back to the compressed discs and take the pressure off the lumbar nerve roots that are causing the radiating pain. Other research studies have found that decompression therapy can significantly improve lumbar spinal stenosis that also causes lumbar pinched nerves to emit pain by relieving it and bringing physical function back to the legs and back. This will cause significant relief for many suffering individuals suffering from having lumbar pinched nerves.



Overall the lower back has nerves that are spread out and can provide a motor function for the back to move around while keeping the upper body upright. When these nerves are pinched or irritated constantly, they can cause unwanted back issues like low back pain, sciatica, or loss of all sensory and motor functions. When this happens, many individuals won’t have to worry about feeling low back pain or lumbar pinched nerves stopping them from daily activities. Spinal decompression therapy helps the individual gently take the pressure off the irritated nerve roots and causes relief to the lower back and legs. Spinal decompression therapy also allows the beneficial healing nutrients to restore the compressed spinal discs to the spine.



Alexander, Christopher E, and Matthew Varacallo. “Lumbosacral Radiculopathy – Statpearls – NCBI Bookshelf.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 12 Feb. 2022,

Allegri, Massimo, et al. “Mechanisms of Low Back Pain: A Guide for Diagnosis and Therapy.” F1000Research, F1000Research, 28 June 2016,

Anjarwalla, N K, et al. “The Outcome of Spinal Decompression Surgery 5 Years On.” European Spine Journal : Official Publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society, Springer-Verlag, Nov. 2007,

Dydyk, Alexander M, et al. “Radicular Back Pain – Statpearls – NCBI Bookshelf.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 2 Nov. 2021,

Gay, Ralph. “All about Spinal Decompression Therapy.” Spine, Spine-Health, 24 Sept. 2013,


An Overview of Lumbar Traction Therapy

An Overview of Lumbar Traction Therapy


As the body’s central support structure in the musculoskeletal system, the spine ensures that the body can do everything without feeling discomfort or pain. The spine has three sections in an S-shaped curve known as the cervicalthoracic, and lumbar. Each section helps keep the body upright and is composed of ligaments, soft tissue muscles, and nerve roots spread out all over the back. The spine and sections suffer the most from neck or back pain when the back becomes injured. When this happens, non-surgical treatments can help alleviate the painful symptoms and cause relief for many individuals. Today’s article gives an overview of lumbar traction therapy, how it can help with low back pain, and how it differs from decompression therapy. By referring patients to qualified and skilled providers specializing in spinal decompression therapy. To that end, and when appropriate, we advise our patients to refer to our associated medical providers based on their examination. We find that education is the key to asking valuable questions to our providers. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer


Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.


What Is Lumbar Traction Therapy?


Feeling your muscles become stiff on your lower back? Does your back hurt after picking up something heavy? How about a mild ache on your lower back that won’t disappear? Why not try lumbar traction therapy to alleviate these symptoms. Research studies have mentioned that lumbar traction has been used to alleviate symptoms of low back pain. What lumbar traction therapy does is that it allows the extension of soft tissue muscles that are around the facet joints while decreasing the pressure off the intervertebral discs of the lumbar spine. This allows the anterior and posterior ligaments to be extended while stretching and relaxing the muscle to stop them from spasming, improving blood circulation around the spine. Other research studies have found that lumbar traction has helped reduce the pain intensity and disability for many individuals suffering from chronic low back pain. Traction therapy gently relieves the pressure off the spine and helps bring the nutrients back to the spinal discs to promote relief to the individual.


How Does It Help With Low Back Pain?

Since chronic low back pain is common worldwide, many individuals try to alleviate low back pain without going to surgery. Some will try medication to reduce severe pain; others will do light physical activities like yoga or meditation to stretch out the tense muscles. Traction therapy can help alleviate low pain symptoms and prevent other chronic conditions from progressing even further. Research studies have stated that traction therapy can help increase the spinal disc height and reduce internal pressure. This allows the irritated pain-sensitive fibers around the outer layer of the spinal discs to relax and relieve the spinal joints to be put back into normal position. Fortunately, traction therapy and even decompression therapy for low back pain can work together with other non-surgical treatments to help decompress the spine and lower the effects of chronic low back pain.

Lumbar Traction Overview-Video

Feeling mild to severe pain in your lower back? How about tenderness on certain parts of your back? Do your muscles ache and become stiff when carrying or lifting heavy items? Suffering from low back pain can hinder your daily activities and make you feel miserable. Like the video above, utilizing lumbar traction therapy can help relax the back muscles and provide relief to the compressed spinal discs that are pressing on the nerve roots. Traction therapy is a non-surgical treatment that allows individuals to lay down on a traction machine and be strapped in. The traction machine begins to slowly pull on the spine, causing the intervertebral disc to increase its height in the spine and any nerve roots that were being irritated to stop sending pain signals to and from the brain. Suppose you want to learn more about lumbar traction and how it can benefit you? In that case, this link will explain what traction does for the lumbar area in the spine and provide relief to the back.

How Is Traction Different Than Decompression?


Research studies show that lumbar traction therapy immediately improved the pain and functional status of many individuals suffering from chronic low back pain. Since traction therapy help with chronic low back pain, how is it different when individuals use decompression therapy? Traction therapy is performed mechanically or manually to help widen the spaces between the spinal vertebrae. In contrast, decompression therapy helps relieve the pressure of irritated nerve roots that are causing pain along the spinal column. Research studies have found that decompression uses negative pressure to reduce spinal disc protrusion and intradiscal stress off the spinal nerve roots. Traction and decompression therapy have one thing in common: relieve pressure off the spine and alleviate low back pain. These two therapies can also be combined with physical therapy that allows the individual to reduce the stress of the nerve roots and strengthen the back muscle tissues. Incorporating traction or decompression therapy will benefit anyone on their wellness journey by providing relief to chronic low back pain.




Therefore, as part of the musculoskeletal system, the spine can be injured in various scenarios that cause low back pain. Incorporating lumbar traction therapy can help alleviate low back pain either manually or mechanically, stretching the spine to help widen the spaces in the spinal column to relieve compressed spinal discs and loosen up the stiff back muscle to promote blood circulation to the back. Since decompression and traction are different forms of therapy, they do have something in common when it comes to low back pain: to relieve the symptoms of the individual. Once people start incorporating traction therapy as part of their journey to a healthy lifestyle, they can feel relieved and become pain-free from chronic low back pain.



Borman, Pinar, et al. “The Efficacy of Lumbar Traction in the Management of Patients with Low Back Pain.” Rheumatology International, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Mar. 2003,

Koçak, Fatmanur Aybala, et al. “Comparison of the Short-Term Effects of the Conventional Motorized Traction with Non-Surgical Spinal Decompression Performed with a DRX9000 Device on Pain, Functionality, Depression, and Quality of Life in Patients with Low Back Pain Associated with Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Single-Blind Randomized-Controlled Trial.” Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Bayçınar Medical Publishing, 16 Feb. 2017,

Oh, Hyunju, et al. “The Impact of Manual Spinal Traction Therapy on the Pain and Oswestry Disability Index of Patients with Chronic Back Pain.” Journal of Physical Therapy Science, The Society of Physical Therapy Science, Dec. 2018,

Tadano, Shigeru, et al. “Lumbar Mechanical Traction: A Biomechanical Assessment of Change at the Lumbar Spine.” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, BioMed Central, 9 Apr. 2019,

Tanabe;Akai M;Doi T;Arai S;Fujino K;Hayashi K; ;, Hideki. “Immediate Effect of Mechanical Lumbar Traction in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Crossover, Repeated Measures, Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 27 Mar. 2021,


Disc Bulge & Herniation Chiropractic Care Overview

Disc Bulge & Herniation Chiropractic Care Overview

Disc bulge and disc herniation are some of the most common conditions affecting the spine of both young and middle-aged patients. It is estimated that approximately 2.6% of the US population annually visits a clinician to treat spinal disorders. Roughly $ 7.1 billion alone is lost due to the time away from work.

Disc herniation is when the whole or part of the nucleus pulposus is protruded through the torn or weakened outer annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc. This is also known as the slipped disc and frequently occurs in the lower back, sometimes also affecting the cervical region. Herniation of the intervertebral disc is defined as a localized displacement of disc material with 25% or less of the disc circumference on an MRI scan, according to the North American Spine Society 2014. The herniation may consist of nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus, apophyseal bone or osteophytes, and the vertebral endplate cartilage in contrast to disc bulge.

There are also mainly two types of disc herniation. Disc protrusion is when a focal or symmetrical extension of the disc comes out of its confines in the intervertebral space. It is situated at the intervertebral disc level, and its outer annular fibers are intact. A disc extrusion is when the intervertebral disc extends above or below the adjacent vertebrae or endplates with a complete annular tear. In this type of disc extrusion, a neck or base is narrower than the dome or the herniation.

A disc bulge is when the outer fibers of the annulus fibrosus are displaced from the margins of the adjacent vertebral bodies. Here, the displacement is more than 25% of the circumference of the intervertebral disc. It also does not extend below or above the margins of the disc because the annulus fibrosus attachment limits it. It differs from disc herniation because it involves less than 25% of the disc’s circumference. Usually, the disc bulge is a gradual process and is broad. The disc bulge can be divided into two types. In a circumferential bulge, the whole disc circumference is involved. More than 90 degrees of the rim is involved asymmetrically in asymmetrical bulging.

Normal Intervertebral Disc Anatomy

Before going into detail about the definition of disc herniation and disc bulge, we need to look at the standard intervertebral disc. According to spine guidelines in 2014, a standard disc is something that has a classic shape without any evidence of degenerative disc changes. Intervertebral discs are responsible for one-third to one-fourth of the height of the spinal column.

One intervertebral disc is about 7 -10 mm thick and measures 4 cm in anterior-posterior diameter in the lumbar region of the spine. These spinal discs are located between two adjacent vertebral bodies. However, no discs can be found between the atlas and axis and the coccyx. About 23 discs are found in the spine, with six in the cervical spine, 12 in the thoracic spine, and only five in the lumbar spine.

Intervertebral discs are made of fibro cartilages, forming a fibrocartilaginous joint. The outer ring of the intervertebral disc is known as the annulus fibrosus, while the inner gel-like structure in the center is known as the nucleus pulposus. The cartilage endplates sandwich the nucleus pulposus superiorly and inferiorly. The annulus fibrosus comprises concentric collagen fiber sheets arranged in a radial tire-like structure into lamellae. The fibers are attached to the vertebral endplates and oriented at different angles. With their cartilaginous part, the endplates anchor the discs in their proper place.

The nucleus pulposus is composed of water, collagen, and proteoglycans. Proteoglycans attract and retain moisture, giving the nucleus pulposus a hydrated gel-like consistency. Interestingly, throughout the day, the amount of water found in the nucleus pulposus varies according to the person’s level of activity. This feature in the intervertebral disc serves as a cushion or a spinal shock-absorbing system to protect the adjacent vertebra, spinal nerves, spinal cord, brain, and other structures against various forces. Although the individual movement of the intervertebral discs is limited, some form of vertebral motion like flexion and extension is still possible due to the features of the intervertebral disc.

Effect of Intervertebral Disc Morphology on Structure and Function

The type of components present in the intervertebral disc and how it is arranged determine the morphology of the intervertebral disc. This is important in how effectively the disc does its function. As the disc is the most important element which bears the load and allows movement in the otherwise rigid spine, the constituents it is made up of have a significant bearing.

The complexity of the lamellae increases with advancing age as a result of the synthetic response of the intervertebral disc cells to the variations in the mechanical load. These changes in lamellae with more bifurcations, interdigitation and irregular size and number of lamellar bands will lead to the altered bearing of weight. This in turn establishes a self-perpetuated disruption cycle leading to the destruction of the intervertebral discs. Once this process is started it is irreversible. As there is an increased number of cells, the amount of nutrition the disc requires is also increasingly changing the normal concentration gradient of both metabolites and nutrients. Due to this increased demand, the cells may also die increasingly by necrosis or apoptosis.

Human intervertebral discs are avascular and hence the nutrients are diffused from the nearby blood vessels in the margin of the disc. The main nutrients; oxygen and glucose reach the cells in the disc through diffusion according to the gradient determined by the rate of transport to the cells through the tissues and the rate of demand. Cells also increasingly produce lactic acid as a metabolic end product. This is also removed via the capillaries and venules back to the circulation.

Since diffusion depends on the distance, the cells lying far from the blood capillaries can have a reduced concentration of nutrients because of the reduced supply. With disease processes, the normally avascular intervertebral disc can become vascular and innervated in degeneration and in disease processes. Although this may increase the oxygen and nutrient supply to the cells in the disc, this can also give rise to many other types of cells that are normally not found in the disc with the introduction of cytokines and growth factors.

The morphology of the intervertebral disc in different parts of the spine also varies although many clinicians base the clinical theories based on the assumption that both cervical and lumbar intervertebral discs have the same structure. The height of the disc was the minimum in the T4-5 level of the thoracic column probably due to the fact that thoracic intervertebral discs are less wedge-shaped than those of cervical and lumbar spinal regions.

From the cranial to caudal direction, the cross-sectional area of the spine increased. Therefore, by the L5-S1 level, the nucleus pulposus was occupying a higher proportion of the intervertebral disc area. The cervical discs have an elliptical shape on cross-section while the thoracic discs had a more circular shape. The lumbar discs also have an elliptical shape though it is more flattened or re-entrant posteriorly.

What is a Disc Bulge?

The bulging disc is when the disc simply bulges outside the intervertebral disc space it normally occupies without the rupture of the outer annulus fibrosus. The bulging area is quite large when compared to a herniated disc. Moreover, in a herniated disc, the annulus fibrosus ruptures or cracks. Although disc bulging is more common than disc herniation, it causes little or no pain to the patient. In contrast, the herniated disc causes a lot of pain.

Causes for Disc Bulging

A bulging disc can be due to several causes. It can occur due to normal age-related changes such as those seen in degenerative disc disease. The aging process can lead to structural and biochemical changes in the intervertebral discs and lead to reduced water content in the nucleus pulposus. These changes can make the patient vulnerable to disc bulges with only minor trauma. Some unhealthy lifestyle habits such as a sedentary lifestyle and smoking can potentiate this process and give rise to more severe changes with the weakening of the disc.

General wear and tear due to repeated microtrauma can also weaken the disc and give rise to disc bulging. This is because when the discs are strained, the normal distribution of weight loading changes. Accumulated micro-trauma over a long period of time can occur in bad posture. Bad posture when sitting, standing, sleeping, and working can increase the pressure in the intervertebral discs.

When a person maintains a forward bending posture, it can lead to overstretching and eventually weakness of the posterior part of the annulus fibrosus. Over time, the intervertebral disc can bulge posteriorly. In occupations that require frequent and repetitive lifting, standing, driving, or bending, the bulging disc may be an occupational hazard. Improper lifting up of items, and improper carrying of heavy objects can also increase the pressure on the spine and lead to disc bulges eventually.

The bulging intervertebral discs usually occur over a long period of time. However, the discs can bulge due to acute trauma too. The unexpected sudden mechanical load can damage the disc resulting in micro-tears. After an accident, the disc can become weakened causing long-term microdamage ultimately leading to bulging of the disc. There may also be a genetic component to the disc bulging. The individual may have a reduced density of elastin in the annulus fibrosus with increased susceptibility to disc diseases. Other environmental facts may also play a part in this disease process.

Symptoms of Disc Bulging

As mentioned previously, bulging discs do not cause pain and even if they do the severity is mild. In the cervical region, the disease will cause pain running down the neck, deep pain in the shoulder region, pain radiating along the upper arm, and forearm up to the fingers.

This may give rise to a diagnostic dilemma as to whether the patient is suffering from a myocardial infarction as the site of referred pain and the radiation is similar. Tingling feeling on the neck may also occur due to the bulging disc.

In the thoracic region, there may be pain in the upper back that radiates to the chest or the upper abdominal region. This may also suggest upper gastrointestinal, lung, or cardiac pathology and hence need to be careful when analyzing these symptoms.

The bulging discs of the lumbar region may present as lower back pain and tingling feeling in the lower back region of the spine. This is the most common site for disc bulges since this area holds the weight of the upper body. The pain or the discomfort can spread through the gluteal area, thighs, and to the feet. There may also be muscle weakness, numbness or tingling sensation. When the disc presses on the spinal cord, the reflexes of both legs can increase leading to spasticity.

Some patients may even have paralysis from the waist down. When the bulging disc compresses on the cauda equine, the bladder and bowel functions can also change. The bulging disc can press on the sciatic nerve leading to sciatica where the pain radiates in one leg from the back down to the feet.

The pain from the bulging disc can get worse during some activities as the bulge can then compress on some of the nerves. Depending on what nerve is affected, the clinical features can also vary.

Diagnosis of Disc Bulging

The diagnosis may not be apparent from clinical history due to similar presentations in more serious problems. But the chronic nature of the disease may give some clues. Complete history and a physical examination need to be done to rule out myocardial infarction, gastritis, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and chronic lung pathology.

MRI of Disc Bulge

Investigations are necessary for the diagnosis. X-ray spine is performed to look for gross pathology although it may not show the bulging disc directly. There may be indirect findings of disk degeneration such as osteophytes in the endplates, gas in the disc due to the vacuum phenomenon, and the loss of height of the intervertebral disc. In the case of moderate bulges, it may sometimes appear as non-focal intervertebral disc material that is protruded beyond the borders of the vertebra which is broad-based, circumferential, and symmetrical.

Magnetic resonance imaging or MRI can exquisitely define the anatomy of the intervertebral discs especially the nucleus pulposus and its relationships. The early findings seen on MRI in disc bulging include the loss of normal concavity of the posterior disc. The bulges can be seen as broad-based, circumferential, and symmetrical areas. In moderate bulging, the disc material will protrude beyond the borders of the vertebrae in a non-focal manner. Ct myelogram may also give detailed disc anatomy and may be useful in the diagnosis.

Treatment of Disc Bulging

The treatment for the bulging disc can be conservative, but sometimes surgery is required.

Conservative Treatment

When the disc bulging is asymptomatic, the patient does not need any treatment since it does not pose an increased risk. However, if the patient is symptomatic, the management can be directed at relieving the symptoms. The pain is usually resolved with time. Till then, potent pain killers such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen should be prescribed. In unresolved pain, steroid injections can also be given to the affected area and if it still does not work, the lumbar sympathetic block can be tried in most severe cases.

The patient can also be given the option of choosing alternative therapies such as professional massage, physical therapy, ice packs, and heating pads which may alleviate symptoms. Maintaining correct posture, tapes, or braces to support the spine are used with the aid of a physiotherapist. This may fasten the recovery process by avoiding further damage and keeping the damaged or torn fibers in the intervertebral disc without leakage of the fluid portion of the disc. This helps maintain the normal structure of the annulus and may increase the recovery rate. Usually, the painful symptoms which present initially get resolved over time and lead to no pain. However, if the symptoms get worse steadily, the patient may need surgery

If the symptoms are resolved, physiotherapy can be used to strengthen the muscles of the back with the use of exercises. Gradual exercises can be used for the return of function and for preventing recurrences.

Surgical Treatment

When conservative therapy does not work with a few months of treatment, surgical treatment can be considered. Most would prefer minimally invasive surgery which uses advanced technology to correct the intervertebral disc without having to grossly dissect the back. These procedures such as microdiscectomy have a lower recovery period and reduced risk of scar formation, major blood loss, and trauma to adjacent structures when compared to open surgery.

Previously, laminectomy and discectomy have been a mainstay of treatment. However, due to the invasiveness of the procedure and due to increased damage to the nerves these procedures are currently abandoned by many clinicians for disc bulging.

Disc bulging in the thoracic spine is being treated surgically with costotransversectomy where a section of the transverse process is resected to allow access to the intervertebral disc. The spinal cord and spinal nerves are decompressed by using thoracic decompression by removing a part of the vertebral body and making a small opening. The patient may also need a spinal fusion later on if the removed spinal body was significant.

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery can also be used where only a small incision is made and the surgeon can perform the surgery with the assistance of the camera. If the surgical procedure involved removing a large portion of the spinal bone and disc material, it may lead to spinal instability. This may need bone grafting to replace the lost portion with plates and screws to hold them in place.

What is a Disc Herniation?

As mentioned in the first section of this article, disc herniation occurs when there is disc material displaces beyond the limits of the intervertebral disc focally. The disc space consists of endplates of the vertebral bodies superiorly and inferiorly while the outer edges of the vertebral apophyses consist of the peripheral margin. The osteophytes are not considered a disc margin. There may be irritation or compression of the nerve roots and dural sac due to the volume of the herniated material leading to pain. When this occurs in the lumbar region, this is classically known as sciatica. This condition has been mentioned since ancient times although a connection between disc herniation and sciatica was made only in the 20th century. Disc herniation is one of the commonest diagnoses seen in the spine due to degenerative changes and is the commonest cause of spinal surgery.

Classifications of Disc Herniation

There are many classifications regarding intervertebral disc herniation. In focal disc herniation, there is a localized displacement of the disc material in the horizontal or axial plane. In this type, only less than 25% of the circumference of the disc is involved. In broad-based disc herniation, about 25 – 50 % of the disc circumference is herniated. The disc bulge is when 50 – 100 % of the disc material is extended beyond the normal confines of the intervertebral space. This is not considered a form of disc herniation. Furthermore, the intervertebral disc deformities associated with severe cases of scoliosis and spondylolisthesis are not classified as a herniation but rather adaptive changes of the contour of the disc due to the adjacent deformity.

Depending on the contour of the displaced material, the herniated discs can be further classified as protrusions and extrusions. In disc protrusion, the distance measured in any plane involving the edges of the disc material beyond intervertebral disc space (the highest measure is taken) is lower than the distance measured in the same plane between the edges of the base.

Imaging can show the disc displacement as a protrusion on the horizontal section and as an extrusion on the sagittal section due to the fact that the posterior longitudinal ligament contains the disc material that is displaced posteriorly. Then the herniation should be considered an extrusion. Sometimes the intervertebral disc herniation can occur in the craniocaudal or vertical direction through a defect in the vertebral body endplates. This type of herniation is known as intravertebral herniation.

The disc protrusion can also be divided into two focal protrusion and broad-based protrusion. In focal protrusion, the herniation is less than 25% of the circumference of the disc whereas, in broad-based protrusion, the herniated disc consists of 25 – 50 % of the circumference of the disc.

In disc extrusion, it is diagnosed if any of the two following criteria are satisfied. The first one is; that the distance measured between the edges of the disc material that is beyond the intervertebral disc space is greater than the distance measured in the same plane between the edges of the base. The second one is; that the material in the intervertebral disc space and material beyond the intervertebral disc space is having a lack continuity.

This can be further characterized as sequestrated which is a subtype of the extruded disc. It is called disc migration when disk material is pushed away from the site of extrusion without considering whether there is continuity of disc or not. This term is useful in interpreting imaging modalities as it is often difficult to show continuity in imaging.

The intervertebral disc herniation can be further classified as contained discs and discs that are unconfined. The term contained disc is used to refer to the integrity of the peripheral annulus fibrosus which is covering the intervertebral disc herniation. When fluid is injected into the intervertebral disc, the fluid does not leak into the vertebral canal in herniations that are contained.

Sometimes there are displaced disc fragments that are characterized as free. However, there should be no continuity between disc material and the fragment and the original intervertebral disc for it to be called a free fragment or a sequestered one. In a migrated disc and in a migrated fragment, there is an extrusion of disc material through the opening in the annulus fibrosus with a displacement of the disc material away from the annulus.

Even though some fragments that are migrated can be sequestered the term migrated means just to the position and it is not referred to the continuity of the disc. The displaced intervertebral disc material can be further described with regard to the posterior longitudinal ligament as submembranous, subcapsular, subligamentous, extra ligamentous, transligamentous, subcapsular, and perforated.

The spinal canal can also get affected by an intervertebral disc herniation. This compromise of the canal can also be classified as mild, moderate, and severe depending on the area that is compromised. If the canal at that section is compromised only less than one third, it is called mild whereas if it is only compromised less than two-thirds and more than one third it is considered moderate. In a severe compromise, more than two-thirds of the spinal canal is affected. For the foraminal involvement, this same grading system can be applied.

The displaced material can be named according to the position that they are in the axial plane from the center to the right lateral region. They are termed as central, right central, right subarticular, right foraminal, and right extraforaminal. The displaced intervertebral disc material’s composition can be further classified as gaseous, liquefied, desiccated, scarred, calcified, ossified, bony, nuclear, and cartilaginous.

Before going into detail on how to diagnose and treat intervertebral disc herniation, let us differentiate how cervical disc herniation differs from lumbar herniation since they are the most common regions to undergo herniation.

Cervical Disc Herniation vs. Thoracic Disc Herniation vs Lumbar Disc Herniation

Lumbar disc herniation is the most commonest type of herniation found in the spine which is approximately 90% of the total. However, cervical disc herniation can also occur in about one-tenth of patients. This difference is mainly due to the fact that the lumbar spine has more pressure due to the increased load. Moreover, it has comparatively large intervertebral disc material. The most common sites of intervertebral disc herniation in the lumbar region are L 5 – 6, in the Cervical region between C7, and in the thoracic region T12.

Cervical disc herniation can occur relatively commonly because the cervical spine acts as a pivoting point for the head and it is a vulnerable area for trauma and therefore prone to damage in the disc. Thoracic disc herniation occurs more infrequently than any of the two. This is due to the fact that thoracic vertebrae are attached to the ribs and the thoracic cage which limits the range of movement in the thoracic spine when compared to the cervical and lumbar spinal discs. However, thoracic intervertebral disc herniation can still occur.

Cervical disc herniation gives rise to neck pain, shoulder pain, pain radiating from the neck to the arm, tingling, etc. Lumbar disc herniation can similarly cause lower back pain as well as pain, tingling, numbness, and muscle weakness seen in the lower limbs. Thoracic disc herniation can give rise to pain in the upper back radiating to the torso.


Although disc herniation can occur in all age groups, it predominantly occurs between the fourth and fifth decade of life with the mean age of 37 years. There have been reports that estimate the prevalence of intervertebral disc herniation to be 2 – 3 % of the general population. It is more commonly seen in men over 35 years with a prevalence of 4.8% and while in women this figure is around 2.5%. Due to its high prevalence, it is considered a worldwide problem as it is also associated with significant disability.

Risk Factors

In most instances, a herniated disc occurs due to the natural aging process in the intervertebral disc. Due to the disc degeneration, the amount of water that was previously seen in the intervertebral disc gets dried out leading to the shrinking of the disc with the narrowing of the intervertebral space. These changes are markedly seen in degenerative disc disease. In addition to these gradual changes due to normal wear and tear, other factors may also contribute to increasing the risk of intervertebral disc herniation.

Being overweight can increase the load on the spine and increase the risk of herniation. A sedentary life can also increase the risk and therefore an active lifestyle is recommended in preventing this condition. Improper posture with prolonged standing, sitting, and especially driving can put a strain on the intervertebral discs due to the additional vibration from the vehicle engine leading to microtrauma and cracks in the disc. The occupations which require constant bending, twisting, pulling and lifting can put a strain on the back. Improper weight lifting techniques are one of the major reasons.

When back muscles are used in lifting heavy objects instead of lifting with the legs and twisting while lifting can make the lumbar discs more vulnerable to herniation. Therefore patients should always be advised to lift weights with their legs and not the back. Smoking has been thought to increase disc herniation by reducing the blood supply to the intervertebral disc leading to degenerative changes of the disc.

Although the above factors are frequently assumed to be the causes for disc herniation, some studies have shown that the difference in risk is very small when this particular population was compared with the control groups of the normal population.

There have been several types of research done on genetic predisposition and intervertebral disc herniation. Some of the genes that are implicated in this disease include vitamin D receptor (VDR) which is a gene that codes for the polypeptides of important collagen called collagen IX (COL9A2).

Another gene called the human aggrecan gene (AGC) is also implicated as it codes for proteoglycans which is the most important structural protein found in the cartilage. It supports the biochemical and mechanical function of the cartilage tissue and hence when this gene is defective, it can predispose an individual to intervertebral disc herniation.

Apart from these, there are many other genes that are being researched due to the association between disc herniation such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) cartilage intermediate layer protein, thrombospondin (THBS2), collagen 11A1, carbohydrate sulfotransferase, and asporin (ASPN). They may also be regarded as potential gene markers for lumbar disc disease.

Pathogenesis of Sciatica and Disc Herniation

The sciatic pain originated from the extruded nucleus pulposus inducing various phenomena. It can directly compress the nerve roots leading to ischemia or without it, mechanically stimulate the nerve endings of the outer portion of the fibrous ring and release inflammatory substances suggesting its multifactorial origin. When the disc herniation causes mechanical compression of the nerve roots, the nerve membrane is sensitized to pain and other stimuli due to ischemia. It has been shown that in sensitized and compromised nerve roots, the threshold for neuronal sensitization is around half of that of a normal and non-compromised nerve root.

The inflammatory cell infiltration is different in extruded discs and non-extruded discs. Usually, in non-extruded discs, the inflammation is less. The extruded disc herniation causes the posterior longitudinal ligament to rupture which exposes the herniated part to the vascular bed of the epidural space. It is believed that inflammatory cells are originating from these blood vessels situated in the outermost part of the intervertebral disc.

These cells may help secrete substances that cause inflammation and irritation of the nerve roots causing sciatic pain. Therefore, extruded herniations are more likely to cause pain and clinical impairment than those that are contained. In contained herniations, the mechanical effect is predominant while in the unconfined or the extruded discs the inflammatory effect is predominant.

Clinical Disc Herniation and What to Look for in the History

The symptoms of the disc herniation can vary a great deal depending on the location of the pain, the type of herniation, and the individual. Therefore, history should focus on the analysis of the main complaint among the many other symptoms.

The chief complaint can be neck pain in cervical disc herniation and there can be referred pain in the arms, shoulders, neck, head, face, and even the lower back region. However, it is most commonly referred to as the interscapular region. The radiation of pain can occur according to the level at the herniation is taking place. When the nerve roots of the cervical region are affected and compressed, there can be sensory, and motor changes with changes in the reflexes.

The pain that occurs due to nerve root compression is called radicular pain and it can be described as deep, aching, burning, dull, achy, and electric depending on whether there is mainly motor dysfunction or sensory dysfunction. In the upper limb, the radicular pain can follow a dermatomal or myotomal pattern. Radiculopathy usually does not accompany neck pain. There can be unilateral as well as bilateral symptoms. These symptoms can be aggravated by activities that increase the pressure inside the intervertebral discs such as the Valsalva maneuver and lifting.

Driving can also exacerbate pain due to disc herniation due to stress because of vibration. Some studies have shown that shock loading and stress from vibration can cause a mechanical force to exacerbate small herniations but flexed posture had no influence. Similarly, activities that decrease intradiscal pressure can reduce the symptoms such as lying down.

The main complaint in lumbar disc herniation is lower back pain. Other associated symptoms can be a pain in the thigh, buttocks, and anogenital region which can radiate to the foot and toe. The main nerve affected in this region is the sciatic nerve causing sciatica and its associated symptoms such as intense pain in the buttocks, leg pain, muscle weakness, numbness, impairment of sensation, hot and burning or tingling sensation in the legs, dysfunction of gait, impairment of reflexes, edema, dysesthesia or paresthesia in the lower limbs. However, sciatica can be caused by causes other than herniation such as tumors, infection, or instability which need to be ruled out before arriving at a diagnosis.

The herniated disc can also compress on the femoral nerve and can give rise to symptoms such as numbness, tingling sensation in one or both legs, and a burning sensation in the legs and hips. Usually, the nerve roots that are affected in herniation in the lumbar region are the ones exiting below the intervertebral disc. It is thought that the level of the nerve root irritation determines the distribution of leg pain. In herniations at the third and fourth lumbar vertebral levels, the pain may radiate to the anterior thigh or the groin. In radiculopathy at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra, the pain may occur in the lateral and anterior thigh region. In herniations at the level of the first sacrum, the pain may occur in the bottom of the foot and the calf. There can also be numbness and tingling sensation occurring in the same area of distribution. The weakness in the muscles may not be able to be recognized if the pain is very severe.

When changing positions the patient is often relieved from pain. Maintaining a supine position with the legs raised can improve the pain. Short pain relief can be brought by having short walks while long walks, standing for prolonged periods, and sitting for extended periods of time such as in driving can worsen the pain.

The lateral disc herniation is seen in foraminal and extraforaminal herniations and they have different clinical features to that of medial disc herniation seen in subarticular and central herniations. The lateral intervertebral disc herniations can when compared to medial herniations more directly irritate and mechanically compress the nerve roots that are exiting and the dorsal root ganglions situated inside the narrowed spinal canal.

Therefore, lateral herniation is seen more frequently in older age with more radicular pain and neurological deficits. There is also more radiating leg pain and intervertebral disc herniations in multiple levels in the lateral groups when compared to medial disc herniations.

The herniated disc in the thoracic region may not present with back pain at all. Instead, there are predominant symptoms due to referred pain in the thorax due to irritation of nerves. There can also be predominant pain in the body that travels to the legs, tingling sensation and numbness in one or both legs, muscle weakness, and spasticity of one or both legs due to exaggerated reflexes.

The clinician should look out for atypical presentations as there could be other differential diagnoses. The onset of symptoms should be inquired about to determine whether the disease is acute, sub-acute, or chronic in onset. Past medical history has to be inquired about in detail to exclude red flag symptoms such as pain that occurs at night without activity which can be seen in pelvic vein compression, and non-mechanical pain which may be seen in tumors or infections.

If there is a progressive neurological deficit, with bowel and bladder involvement is there, it is considered a neurological emergency and urgently investigated because cauda equine syndrome may occur which if untreated, can lead to permanent neurological deficit.

Getting a detailed history is important including the occupation of the patient as some activities in the job may be exacerbating the patient’s symptoms. The patient should be assessed regarding which activities he can and cannot do.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Degenerative disc disease
  • Mechanical pain
  • Myofascial pain leading to sensory disturbances and local or referred pain
  • Hematoma
  • Cyst leading to occasional motor deficits and sensory disturbances
  • Spondylosis or spondylolisthesis
  • Discitis or osteomyelitis
  • Malignancy, neurinoma or mass lesion causing atrophy of thigh muscles, glutei
  • Spinal stenosis is seen mainly in the lumbar region with mild low back pain, motor deficits, and pain in one or both legs.
  • An epidural  abscess can cause symptoms similar to radicular pain involving spinal disc herniation
  • Aortic aneurysm which can cause low back pain and leg pain due to compression can also rupture and lead to hemorrhagic shock.
  • Hodgkin’s lymphoma in advanced stages can lead to space-occupying lesions in the spinal column leading to symptoms like that of intervertebral disc herniation
  • Tumors
  • Pelvic endometriosis
  • Facet hypertrophy
  • Lumbar nerve root schwannoma
  • Herpes zoster infection results in inflammation along with the sciatic or lumbosacral nerve roots

Examination in Disc Herniation

Complete physical examination is necessary to diagnose intervertebral disc herniation and exclude other important differential diagnoses. The range of motion has to be tested but may have a poor correlation with disc herniation as it is mainly reduced in elderly patients with a degenerative disease and due to disease of the joints.

A complete neurological examination is often necessary. This should test muscle weakness and sensory weakness. In order to detect muscle weakness in small toe muscles, the patient can be asked to walk on tiptoe. The strength of muscle can also be tested by comparing the strength to that of the clinician. There may be dermatomal sensory loss suggesting the respective nerve root involvement. The reflexes may be exaggerated or sometimes maybe even absent.

There are many neurologic examination maneuvers described in relation to intervertebral disc herniation such as the Braggart sign, flip the sign, Lasegue rebound sign, Lasegue differential sign, Mendel Bechterew sign, Deyerle sign both legs or Milgram test, and well leg or Fajersztajin test. However, all these are based on testing the sciatic nerve root tension by using the same principles in the straight leg raising test. These tests are used for specific situations to detect subtle differences.

Nearly almost all of them depend on the pain radiating down the leg and if it occurs above the knee it is assumed to be due to a neuronal compressive lesion and if the pain goes below the knee, it is considered to be due to the compression of the sciatic nerve root. For lumbar disc herniation detection, the most sensitive test is considered to be radiating pain occurring down the leg due to provocation.

In the straight leg raising test also called the Lasegue’s sign, the patient stays on his or her back and keeps the legs straight. The clinician then lifts the legs by flexing the hip while keeping the knee straight. The angle at which the patient feels pain going down the leg below the knee is noted. In a normal healthy individual, the patient can flex the hip to 80- 90? without having any pain or difficulty.

However, if the angle is just 30 -70? degrees, it is suggestive of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation at the L4 to S1 nerve root levels. If the angle of hip flexion without pain is less than 30 degrees, it usually indicates some other causes such as tumor of the gluteal region, gluteal abscess, spondylolisthesis, disc extrusion, and protrusion, malingering patient, and acute inflammation of the dura mater. If pain with hip flexion occurs at more than 70 degrees, it may be due to tightness of the muscles such as gluteus maximus and hamstrings, tightness of the capsule of the hip joint, or pathology of sacroiliac or hip joints.

The reverse straight leg raising test or hip extension test can be used to test higher lumbar lesions by stretching the nerve roots of the femoral nerve which is similar to the straight leg raising test. In the cervical spine, in order to detect stenosis of the foramina, the Spurling test is done and is not specific to cervical intervertebral disc herniation or tension of the nerve roots. The Kemp test is the analogous test in the lumbar region to detect foraminal stenosis. Complications due to the disc herniation include careful examination of the hip region, digital rectal examination, and urogenital examination is needed.

Investigation of Disc Herniation

For the diagnosis of intervertebral disc herniation, diagnostic tests such as Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Computed tomography (CT), myelography, and plain radiography can be used either alone or in combination with other imaging modalities. Objective detection of disc herniation is important because only after such a finding the surgical intervention is even considered. Serum biochemical tests such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Alkaline phosphatize value, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), urine analysis for Bence Jones protein, serum glucose level, and serum protein electrophoresis may also be needed in specific circumstances guided by history.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

MRI is considered the best imaging modality in patients with history and physical examination findings suggestive of lumbar disc herniation associated with radiculopathy according to North American Spinal Society guidelines in 2014. The anatomy of the herniated nucleus pulposus and its associated relationships with soft tissue in the adjacent areas can be delineated exquisitely by MRI in cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral areas. Beyond the confines of the annulus, the herniated nucleus can be seen as a focal, asymmetric disc material protrusion on MRI.

On sagittal T2 weighted images, the posterior annulus is usually seen as a high signal intensity area due to radial annular tear associated with the herniation of the disc although the herniated nucleus is itself hypointense. The relationship between the herniated nucleus and degenerated facets with the nerve roots which are exiting through the neural foramina are well-demarcated on sagittal images of MRI. Free fragments of the intervertebral disc can also be distinguished from MRI images.

There may be associated signs of intervertebral disc herniation on MRI such as radial tears on the annulus fibrosus which is also a sign of degenerative disc disease. There may be other telling signs such as loss of disc height, bulging annulus, and changes in the endplates. Atypical signs may also be seen with MRI such as abnormal disc locations, and lesions located completely outside the intervertebral disc space.

MRI can detect abnormalities in the intervertebral discs superiorly to other modalities although its bone imaging is a little less inferior. However, there are limitations with MRI in patients with metal implant devices such as pacemakers because the electromagnetic field can lead to abnormal functioning of the pacemakers. In patients with claustrophobia, it may become a problem to go to the narrow canal to be scanned by the MRI machine. Although some units contain open MRI, it has less magnetic power and hence delineates less superior quality imaging.

This is also a problem in children and anxious patients undergoing MRI because good image quality depends on the patient staying still. They may require sedation. The contrast used in MRI which is gadolinium can induce nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients who had pre-existing renal disease. MRI is also generally avoided in pregnancy especially during the first 12 weeks although it has not been clinically proven to be hazardous to the fetus. MRI is not very useful when a tumor contains calcium and in distinguishing edema fluid from tumor tissue.

Computed Tomography (CT)

CT scanning is also considered another good method to assess spinal disc herniation when MRI is not available. It is also recommended as a first-line investigation in unstable patients with severe bleeding. CT scanning is superior to myelography although when the two are combined, it is superior both of them. CT scans can show calcification more clearly and sometimes even gas in images. In order to achieve a superior imaging quality, the imaging should be focused on the site of pathology and thin sections taken to better determine the extent of the herniation.

However, a CT scan is difficult to be used in patients who have already undergone laminectomy surgical procedures because the presence of scar tissue and fibrosis causes the identification of the structures difficult although bony changes and deformity in nerve sheath are helpful in making a diagnosis.

The herniated intervertebral discs in the cervical disc can be identified by studying the uncinate process. It is usually projected posteriorly and laterally to the intervertebral discs and superiorly to the vertebral bodies. The uncinate process undergoes sclerosis, and hypertrophy when there is an abnormal relationship between the uncinate process and adjacent structures as seen in degenerative disc disease, intervertebral disc space narrowing, and general wear and tear.

Myelopathy can occur when the spinal canal is affected due to disc disease. Similarly, when neural foramina are involved, radiculopathy occurs. Even small herniated discs and protrusions can cause impingement of the dural sac because the cervical epidural space is narrowed naturally. The intervertebral discs have attenuation a little bit greater than the sac characterized in the CT scan.

In the thoracic region, a CT scan can diagnose an intervertebral disc herniation with ease due to the fact that there is an increased amount of calcium found in the thoracic discs. Lateral to the dural sac, the herniated disc material can be seen on CT as a clearly defined mass that is surrounded by epidural fat. When there is a lack of epidural fat, the disc appears as a higher attenuated mass compared to the surrounding.


Plain radiography is not needed in diagnosing herniation of the intervertebral discs, because plain radiographs cannot detect the disc and therefore are used to exclude other conditions such as tumors, infections, and fractures.

In myelography, there may be deformity or displacement of the extradural contrast-filled thecal sac seen in herniation of the disc. There may also be features in the affected nerve such as edema, elevation, deviation, and amputation of the nerve root seen in the myelography image.


In this imaging modality, the contrast medium is injected into the disc in order to assess the disc morphology. If pain occurs following injection that is similar to the discogenic pain, it suggests that that disc is the source of the pain. When a CT scan is also performed immediately after discography, it is helpful to differentiate the anatomy and pathological changes. However, since it is an invasive procedure, it is indicated only in special circumstances when MRI and CT have failed to reveal the etiology of back pain. It has several side effects such as headache, meningitis, damage to the disc, discitis, intrathecal hemorrhage, and increased pain.

Treatment of Herniated Disc

The treatment should be individualized according to the patient-guided through history, physical examination, and diagnostic investigation findings. In most cases, the patient gradually improves without needing further intervention in about 3 – 4 months. Therefore, the patient only needs conservative therapy during this time period. Because of this reason, there are many ineffective therapies that have emerged by attributing the natural resolution of symptoms to that therapy. Therefore, conservative therapy needs to be evidence-based.

Conservative Therapy

Since the herniation of the disc has a benign course, the aim of treatment is to stimulate the recovery of neurological function, reduce pain, and facilitate early return to work and activities of daily living. The most benefits of the conservative treatment are for younger patients with hernias that are sequestered and in patients with mild neurological deficits due to small disc hernias.

Bed rest has long been considered a treatment option in herniation of the disc. However, it has been shown that bed rest has no effect beyond the first 1 or 2 days. The bed rest is regarded as counterproductive after this period of time.

In order to reduce the pain, oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen can be used. This can relieve the pain by reducing inflammation associated with the inflamed nerve. Analgesics such as acetaminophen can also be used although they lack the anti-inflammatory effect seen in NSAIDs. The doses and the drugs should be appropriate for the age and severity of the pain in the patient. If pain is not controlled by the current medication, the clinician has to go one step up on the WHO analgesics ladder. However, the long-term use of NSAIDs and analgesics can lead to gastric ulcers, liver, and kidney problems.

In order to reduce the inflammation, other alternative methods such as applying ice in the initial period and then switching to using heat, gels, and rubs may help with the pain as well as muscle spasms. Oral muscle relaxants can also be used in relieving muscle spasms. Some of the drugs include methocarbamol, carisoprodol, and cyclobenzaprine.

However, they act centrally and cause drowsiness and sedation in patients and it does not act directly to reduce muscle spasm. A short course of oral steroids such as prednisolone for a period of 5 days in a tapering regime can be given to reduce the swelling and inflammation in the nerves. It can provide immediate pain relief within a period of 24 hours.

When the pain is not resolved adequately with maximum effective doses, the patient can be considered for giving steroid injections into the epidural space. The major indication for the steroid injection into periradicular space is discal compression causing radicular pain that is resistant to conventional medical treatment. A careful evaluation with CT or MRI scanning is required to carefully exclude extra discal causes for pain. The contraindications for this therapy include patients with diabetes, pregnancy, and gastric ulcers. Epidural puncture is contraindicated in patients with coagulation disorders and therefore the foraminal approach is used carefully if needed.

This procedure is performed under the guidance of fluoroscopy and involves injecting steroids and an analgesic into the epidural space adjacent to the affected intervertebral disc to reduce the swelling and inflammation of the nerves directly in an outpatient setting. As much as 50% of the patients experience relief after the injection although it is temporary and they might need repeat injections at 2 weekly intervals to achieve the best results. If this treatment modality becomes successful, up to 3 epidural steroidal injections can be given per year.

Physical therapy can help the patient return to his previous life easily although it does not improve the herniated disc. The physical therapist can instruct the patient on how to maintain the correct posture, walking, and lifting techniques depending on the patient’s ability to work, mobility, and flexibility.

Stretching exercises can improve the flexibility of the spine while strengthening exercises can increase the strength of the back muscles. The activities which can aggravate the condition of the herniated disc are instructed to be avoided. Physical therapy makes the transition from intervertebral disc herniation to an active lifestyle smooth. The exercise regimes can be maintained for life to improve general well-being.

The most effective conservative treatment option that is evidence-based is observation and epidural steroid injection for the relief of pain in the short-term duration. However, if the patients so desire they can use holistic therapies of their choice with acupuncture, acupressure, nutritional supplements, and biofeedback although they are not evidence-based. There is also no evidence to justify the use of trans electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as a pain relief method.

If there is no improvement in the pain after a few months, surgery can be contemplated and the patient must be selected carefully for the best possible outcome.

Surgical Therapy

The aim of surgical therapy is to decompress the nerve roots and relieve the tension. There are several indications for surgical treatment which are as follows.

Absolute indications include cauda equina syndrome or significant paresis. Other relative indications include motor deficits that are greater than grade 3, sciatica that is not responding to at least six months of conservative treatment, sciatica for more than six weeks, or nerve root pain due to foraminal bone stenosis.

There have been many discussions over the past few years regarding whether to treat herniation of intervertebral disc disease with prolonged conservative treatment or early surgical treatment. Much research has been conducted in this regard and most of them show that the final clinical outcome after 2 years is the same although the recovery is faster with early surgery. Therefore, it is suggested that early surgery may be appropriate as it enables the patient to return to work early and thereby is economically feasible.

Some surgeons may still use traditional discectomy although many are using minimally invasive surgical techniques over recent years. Microdiscectomy is considered to be the halfway between the two ends. There are two surgical approaches that are being used. Minimally invasive surgery and percutaneous procedures are the ones that are being used due to their relative advantage. There is no place for the traditional surgical procedure known as a laminectomy.

However, there are some studies suggesting microdiscectomy is more favorable because of its both short-term and long-term advantages. In the short term, there is a reduced length of operation, reduced bleeding, relief of symptoms, and reduced complication rate. This technique has been effective even after 10 years of follow-up and therefore is the most preferred technique even now. The studies that have been performed to compare the minimally invasive technique and microdiscectomy have resulted in different results. Some have failed to establish a significant difference while one randomized control study was able to determine that microdiscectomy was more favorable.

In microdiscectomy, only a small incision is made aided by an operating microscope and the part of the herniated intervertebral disc fragment which is impinging on the nerve is removed by hemilaminectomy. Some part of the bone is also removed to facilitate access to the nerve root and the intervertebral disc. The duration of the hospital stay is minimal with only an overnight stay and observation because the patient can be discharged with minimal soreness and complete relief of the symptoms.

However, some unstable patients may need more prolonged admission and sometimes they may need fusion and arthroplasty. It is estimated that about 80 – 85 % of the patients who undergo microdiscectomy recover successfully and many of them are able to return to their normal occupation in about 6 weeks.

There is a discussion on whether to remove a large portion of the disc fragment and curetting the disc space or to remove only the herniated fragment with minimal invasion of the intervertebral disc space. Many studies have suggested that the aggressive removal of large chunks of the disc could lead to more pain than when conservative therapy is used with 28% versus 11.5 %. It may lead to degenerative disc disease in the long term. However, with conservative therapy, there is a greater risk of recurrence of around 7 % in herniation of the disc. This may require additional surgery such as arthrodesis and arthroplasty to be performed in the future leading to significant distress and economic burden.

In the minimally invasive surgery, the surgeon usually makes a tiny incision in the back to put the dilators with increasing diameter to enlarge the tunnel until it reaches the vertebra. This technique causes lesser trauma to the muscles than when seen in traditional microdiscectomy. Only a small portion of the disc is removed in order to expose the nerve root and the intervertebral disc. Then the surgeon can remove the herniated disc by the use of an endoscope or a microscope.

These minimally invasive surgical techniques have a higher advantage of lower surgical site infections and shorter hospital stays. The disc is centrally decompressed either chemically or enzymatically with the use of chymopapain, laser, or plasma (ionized gas) ablation and vaporization. It can also be decompressed mechanically by using percutaneous lateral decompression or by aspirating and sucking with a shaver such as a nucleosome. Chemopapin was shown to have adverse effects and was eventually withdrawn. Most of the above techniques have shown to be less effective than a placebo. Directed segmentectomy is the one that has shown some promise in being effective similar to microdiscectomy.

In the cervical spine, the herniated intervertebral discs are treated anteriorly. This is because the herniation occurs anteriorly and the manipulation of the cervical cord is not tolerated by the patient. The disc herniation that is due to foraminal stenosis and that is confined to the foramen are the only instances where a posterior approach is contemplated.

The minimal disc excision is an alternative to the anterior cervical spine approach. However, the intervertebral disc stability after the procedure is dependent on the residual disc. The neck pain can be significantly reduced following the procedure due to the removal of neuronal compression although significant impairment can occur with residual axial neck pain. Another intervention for cervical disc herniation includes anterior cervical interbody fusion. It is more suitable for patients with severe myelopathy with degenerative disc disease.

Complications of the Surgery

Although the risk of surgery is very low, complications can still occur. Post-operative infection is one of the commonest complications and therefore needs more vigorous infection control procedures in the theatre and in the ward. During the surgery, due to poor surgical technique, nerve damage can occur. A dural leak may occur when an opening in the lining of the nerve root causes leakage of cerebrospinal fluid which is bathing the nerve roots. The lining can be repaired during the surgery. However, headache can occur due to loss of cerebrospinal fluid but it usually improves with time without any residual damage. If blood around the nerve roots clots after the surgery, that blood clot may lead to compression of the nerve root leading to radicular pain which was experienced by the patient previously. Recurrent herniation of the intervertebral disc due to herniation of disc material at the same site is a devastating complication that can occur long term. This can be managed conservatively but surgery may be necessary ultimately.

Outcomes of the Surgery

There has been extensive research done regarding the outcome of lumbar disc herniation surgery. Generally, the results from the microdiscectomy surgery are good. There is more improvement of leg pain than back pain and therefore this surgery is not recommended for those who have only back pain. Many patients improve clinically over the first week but they may improve over the following several months. Typically, the pain disappears in the initial recovery period and it is followed by an improvement in the strength of the leg. Finally, the improvement of the sensation occurs. However, patients may complain of feeling numbness although there is no pain. The normal activities and work can be resumed over a few weeks after the surgery.

Novel Therapies

Although conservative therapy is the most appropriate therapy in treating patients, the current standard of care does not address the underlying pathology of herniation of the intervertebral discs. There are various pathways that are involved in the pathogenesis such as inflammatory, immune-mediated, and proteolytic pathways.

The role of inflammatory mediators is currently under research and it has led to the development of new therapies that are directed at these inflammatory mediators causing damage to the nerve roots. The cytokines such as TNF ? are mainly involved in regulating these processes. The pain sensitivity is mediated by serotonin receptor antagonists and ?2 adrenergic receptor antagonists.

Therefore, pharmacological therapies that target these receptors and mediators may influence the disease process and lead to a reduction in symptoms. Currently, cytokine antagonists against TNF ? and IL 1? have been tested. Neuronal receptor blockers such as sarpogrelate hydrochloride etc have been tested in both animal models and in clinical studies for the treatment of sciatica. Cell cycle modifiers that target the microglia that are thought to initiate the inflammatory cascade have been tested with the neuroprotective antibiotic minocycline.

There is also research on inhibiting the NF- kB or protein kinase pathway recently. In the future, the treatment of herniation of the intervertebral disc will be much more improved thanks to the ongoing research. (Haro, Hirotaka)


El Paso Chiropractor Near Me

Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, RN, CCST


A disc bulge and/or a herniated disc is a health issue that affects the intervertebral discs found in between each vertebra of the spine. Although these can occur as a natural part of degeneration with age, trauma or injury as well as repetitive overuse can also cause a disc bulge or a herniated disc. According to healthcare professionals, a disc bulge and/or a herniated disc is one of the most common health issues affecting the spine. A disc bulge is when the outer fibers of the annulus fibrosus are displaced from the margins of the adjacent vertebral bodies. A herniated disc is when a part of or the whole nucleus pulposus is protruded through the torn or weakened outer annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc. Treatment of these health issues focuses on reducing symptoms. Alternative treatment options, such as chiropractic care and/or physical therapy, can help relieve symptoms. Surgery may be utilized in cases of severe symptoms. – Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T. Insight

Curated by Dr. Alex Jimenez D.C., C.C.S.T.



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Squat Exercises Causing Low Back Pain

Squat Exercises Causing Low Back Pain

Squat exercises are highly effective, as they strengthen the back and core muscles, helping the prevention of injury. They can be done anywhere with or without equipment like weights and resistance bands and can be part of an aerobic workout. Squatting requires following proper form and posture. Using the improper form, adding too much weight too soon, overdoing it without enough recovery time can cause soreness, back pain, and injury. Having muscle soreness after performing squats is expected; however, if symptoms like chronic soreness, tingling, numbness, or sharp aches that come and go, begin to appear, it is recommended to consult a medical trainer, chiropractor, doctor, or spine specialist to evaluate the symptoms, and if necessary develop a treatment plan, as well as a prevention plan to continue exercising safely.

Squat Exercises Causing Low Back Pain

Squat Exercises

Squatting is a highly beneficial form of exercise. Athletes, trainers, coaches, and individuals just staying healthy use the technique as a part of their training and workouts. This is because squatting increases core muscle strength, increasing body power. Squat exercises benefits include:

Increased Flexibility

  • Improved strength and a range of motion allow the body to move flawlessly in various directions with minimal effort.

Increased Core Strength

  • All major muscles work together during a squat.
  • This increases muscle stabilization, maintains body balance, increasing core strength.

Injury Prevention

  • Squats work all leg muscles simultaneously, synchronizing the body.
  • This increases body stability decreasing the risk of injury.

Back Pain and Potential Injury

The spine is exposed and unprotected during a squat. This is where back pain and injury can happen. Potential causes include:

  • Not warming up/priming muscles properly.
  • Tight muscles and a limited range of motion.
  • Improper form and squatting technique.
  • Adding weight or loading too soon.
  • Weak core muscles.
  • Incorrect or improper footwear with inadequate arch support.
  • Weak ankle muscles are not used to the weight and shift, causing misalignment and awkward positioning.
  • Previous injuries to the lower back can cause a flare-up to the area and potentially worsen.


Ways to troubleshoot and prevent back pain during squat exercises.


  • Using a proper and effective warmup will ensure that the body is ready for the workout stress.
  • Priming each muscle is recommended. This could be:
  • Starting with glute work.
  • Then planks to activate the core.
  • Finish off with stretching and range of motion exercises.
  • A personal trainer can assist in creating a customized workout routine.

Starting Position

  • The feet should always face forward to protect the hips and knees when beginning a squat.
  • If the feet face at an angle, the form can be impacted, leading to back pain or collapsing arches.

Spinal Alignment

  • Maintaining a straight-ahead or upward gaze, which increases center awareness during squat exercises, can prevent the body from leaning forward and placing stress on the spine.
  • Only squat as far as possible, making sure to feel in control and maintain the form.
  • Squatting too deep can cause muscle strain leading to pain.
  • Focus on form, as it is more important than depth.

Joint mobility

  • Ankle mobility and stability are essential to balance and control.
  • If the ankle is compromised, the feet could lift off the floor, forcing the body to compensate, leading to strain and potential injuries.
  • Only squat as far as ankle stability allows.
  • Ankle flexibility exercises will help improve squat form.


A chiropractor or physical therapist will be able to evaluate spinal health, exercise form, and advise if there is an issue.

Body Composition

Achieve Health and Fitness Goals By Doing What You Enjoy

Don’t engage in workouts or fitness programs that make you miserable. Do workouts/activities that you enjoy and have fun doing. Exercise for the love of the body, keeping it healthy and in shape, not because there is a feeling of obligation.

  • Try and experiment with different workouts/physical activities to see and feel what works for you.
  • Individuals who don’t like lifting weights try using resistance bands or bodyweight exercises.
  • The same goes for nutrition. Don’t base diet and supplement choices on misperceptions about health.

Calatayud, Joaquín et al. “Tolerability and Muscle Activity of Core Muscle Exercises in Chronic Low-back Pain.” International journal of environmental research and public health vol. 16,19 3509. 20 Sep. 2019, doi:10.3390/ijerph16193509

Clark, Dave R et al. “Muscle activation in the loaded free barbell squat: a brief review.” Journal of strength and conditioning research vol. 26,4 (2012): 1169-78. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822d533d

Cortell-Tormo, Juan M et al. “Effects of functional resistance training on fitness and quality of life in females with chronic nonspecific low-back pain.” Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation vol. 31,1 (2018): 95-105. doi:10.3233/BMR-169684

Donnelly, David V et al. “The effect of the direction of gaze on the kinematics of the squat exercise.” Journal of strength and conditioning research vol. 20,1 (2006): 145-50. doi:10.1519/R-16434.1

Zawadka, Magdalena et al. “Altered squat movement pattern in patients with chronic low back pain.” Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine: AAEM vol. 28,1 (2021): 158-162. doi:10.26444/aaem/117708

Low Back Gluteal Strengthening

Low Back Gluteal Strengthening

Today, more than ever, individuals are less physically active and sitting down for more extended periods causing the gluteus muscles to be used less and weaken. Weak, inactive, or tightening glutes can cause instability in the lower spine, the hips, and the pelvis to shift out of alignment. This leads to low back and buttock pain. The pain is constantly dull, aching, pulsating, then when moving, getting up, it throbs and stings. Gluteal strengthening exercises can strengthen the muscles and alleviate the pain.

Low Back Gluteal Strengthening

Gluteal Strengthening

Every individual has a unique physiology. The body develops asymmetrically as the individual favors one side or area of the body over another. This can cause imbalances in the muscular system, leading to awkward positioning that causes pain. The muscle groups that support the lower back consist of the:

  • Core muscles
  • The gluteal muscle group includes:
  • Gluteus Maximus
  • Gluteus medius
  • Gluteus minimus
  • Pelvis muscles
  • Hamstrings
  • Quadriceps

In some cases, the development or lack of level of an individual’s upper back strength can also affect the amount of strain on the lower back.

Gluteal Strengthening Difference

Many joints connect in this area that can have functional problems. The muscles within the lower back need:

  • Exercise
  • Rest
  • Recovery time
  • To be stretched
  • Mobility training – example, foam rolling

Stretch Out

Stretching allows the body to enhance the limits of its flexibility and mobility. Most of the stretches are involve the hip joint, as this is one of the most effective ways to loosen the gluteal regions. It’s essential to warm the muscles slightly with a light activity while stretching them to elongate naturally.

Seated Figure 4 Stretch

  • Sitting in a chair.
  • Cross the right leg over the left.
  • With the right ankle resting on the left knee.
  • It should resemble the number 4.
  • Bend forward at the hip, placing slight pressure onto the left leg.
  • Hold this stretch for ten-twenty seconds.
  • Stretch the other side.
  • Placing the left foot on the right knee.
  • Repeat this three times.

Downward Dog

This yoga pose engages all the muscles along the back. With the glutes at the top in this position, it forces them to activate, allowing them to stretch fully.

  • Hold this pose and focus the attention on the glutes.
  • Arch the back slightly.
  • Feel the stretch in the seat of the glutes.
  • Hold for 30 seconds.


Glute Bridge

  • Lay on the back with feet flat on the floor.
  • Knees bent.
  • Rear-end resting on the ground.
  • Engage the glutes.
  • Push the rear-end up to form a bridge.
  • Hold for 60 seconds.
  • Repeat three times.

Swiss Exercise Stability Ball Wall Squat

Squats naturally engage the glutes. This is a variation on a squat that focuses on developing gluteal strength.

  • Stand with the back facing the wall.
  • Place a Swiss stability ball between the wall and the back.
  • Lean back into the ball for balance.
  • Lower the torso until the knees reach 90 degrees.
  • Return to standing.
  • Repeat for ten reps.
  • Do three sets.

Body Composition

Analysis An Effective Tool

Opportunities to increase physical activity lead individuals in a positive direction. The most common reason for reducing and stopping healthy changes is a lack of motivation and feedback. Strategies that provide immediate feedback are essential to:

  • Monitor progress for establishing a baseline.
  • Set appropriate and attainable goals.
  • Track changes over time.
  • Ensure success.

Monitoring changes with a simple weight scale or Body Mass Index calculator provides limited ability to accurately track changes that only highlight weight changes and not track progress in muscle gain or fat loss. In less than 45 seconds, the InBody Test provides doctors, trainers, and physical therapists with easy-to-understand, accurate and objective measurements to evaluate body composition that includes:

  • Assessing muscle distribution.
  • Target areas weakened by condition or injury.
  • Identify muscle and fat imbalances in each area of the body.
  • Monitor changes to determine the efficacy of the treatment plan, exercise program, and diet plan to ensure long-term success.

Akuthota, Venu et al. “Core stability exercise principles.” Current sports medicine reports vol. 7,1 (2008): 39-44. doi:10.1097/01.CSMR.0000308663.13278.69

Distefano, Lindsay J et al. “Gluteal muscle activation during common therapeutic exercises.” The Journal of orthopedic and sports physical therapy vol. 39,7 (2009): 532-40. doi:10.2519/jospt.2009.2796

Glaviano, Neal R et al. “Gluteal muscle inhibition: Consequences of patellofemoral pain?.” Medical hypotheses vol. 126 (2019): 9-14. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2019.02.046

Jeong, Ui-Cheol et al. “The effects of gluteus muscle strengthening exercise and lumbar stabilization exercise on lumbar muscle strength and balance in chronic low back pain patients.” Journal of physical therapy science vol. 27,12 (2015): 3813-6. doi:10.1589/jpts.27.3813


Flat Back Syndrome

Flat Back Syndrome

Individuals believe that maintaining a straight/flat back is healthy. However, the back is made up of natural curves that allow flexibility and optimal movement. If there is a lack of these curves, it can lead to spine issues, discomfort, and pain. A common problem to develop from a spine lacking natural curvature is abnormal kyphosis. This is when the natural curve in the thoracic spine – mid-back or lumbar spine – low back disappears, which results in a flat back. Restoring the curvature can be challenging, as flatback syndrome requires chiropractic adjustments to gently shift and realign the spine back into a healthy curve and re-train the spine to maintain the curve.

Flat Back Syndrome

Causes of Flat Back Syndrome

Flatback syndrome is usually a result of muscle tightness in the lower back muscles, specifically in the psoas muscle. Or it could be degenerative disc disease, where the cartilage supporting the spine begins to weaken. Other causes include arthritis and osteoporosis. Practicing unhealthy posture habits can worsen these conditions, speeding up the loss of the spine’s curvature. Loss of spinal curvature does not occur rapidly, as the body will begin to present with symptoms. The following symptoms could be an indication:

  • Fatigue when trying to stand upright
  • Balance problems
  • Restricted mobility
  • Muscle spasms
  • Chronic low back pain
  • Thigh pain
  • Groin pain
  • Disc herniation

Back pain and problems with balance are the earliest warning signs of flatback syndrome.


Flatback symptoms usually get worse as the day progresses, with a sense of fatigue and increasing difficulty to stand upright. Individuals tend to flex or bend their hips and knees to get into an upright position. This can become an exhausting process as the day progresses. Individuals can also have symptoms of sciatica and/or spinal stenosis with leg pain and weakness that gets worse when walking. Neck and upper back pain can begin to present while straining to align themselves. The symptoms become disabling, often requiring pain medications that limit the individual’s ability to perform daily activities.

Realignment Treatment

A chiropractor must determine the severity of the deviation through a thorough assessment and examination. This shows the loss of curvature to help a chiropractor plan a realignment/remodeling adjustment schedule. Restoring a natural kyphosis is done through a combination of adjustments and bracing. Scheduled spinal adjustments will realign and shift the vertebrae back to neutral, while a back brace supports to prevent any deviation. Stretching and exercising relevant muscle groups is also part of a chiropractic treatment plan. An example is core exercises for strengthening the muscles supporting the spine.

Body Composition

Personalized Nutrition

Because the body is so complex and dynamic, there is no perfect fit when it comes to diet, exercise, or a combination. Fad diets typically recommend that individuals adhere to the same eating guidelines, indicating they will reach an expected result like fat loss. These diets work because they focus on a simple reduction in calorie intake, especially processed and fast foods. The problem is that some of these fad diets can restrict critical nutrients that negatively affect an individual’s health. More information about an individual’s body and how it works is an excellent resource in improving body composition and overall health. Personalized nutrition is an innovative and favorable approach to preventing and treating obesity and related conditions. This approach identifies:

  • Genetic markers
  • Dietary patterns
  • Environment
  • Metabolism

Educated recommendations can be made based on these factors.


Drabsch, Theresa, and Christina Holzapfel. “A Scientific Perspective of Personalised Gene-Based Dietary Recommendations for Weight Management.” Nutrients vol. 11,3 617. 14 Mar. 2019, doi:10.3390/nu11030617

Farcy, J P, and F J Schwab. “Management of flatback and related kyphotic decompensation syndromes.” Spine vol. 22,20 (1997): 2452-7. doi:10.1097/00007632-199710150-00025

Lee, Chang-Hyun, et al. “‘Lumbar Degenerative Kyphosis’ Is Not Byword for Degenerative Sagittal Imbalance: Time to Replace a Misconception.” Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society vol. 60,2 (2017): 125-129. doi:10.3340/jkns.2016.0607.001

Lu, Daniel C, and Dean Chou. “Flatback syndrome.” Neurosurgery clinics of North America vol. 18,2 (2007): 289-94. doi:10.1016/

Wiggins, Gregory C et al. “Management of iatrogenic flat-back syndrome.” Neurosurgical focus vol. 15,3 E8. 15 Sep. 2003, doi:10.3171/foc.2003.15.3.8

Pelvic Floor Pain and Back Pain

Pelvic Floor Pain and Back Pain

The pelvic floor is essentially the spine, and when pain presents, it can be mistaken for back pain. However, these two conditions are frequently linked. The National Institutes of Health- NIH reported that a quarter of women are impacted by pelvic floor disorders and up to 16% of men. The pelvic floor is made up of muscles. If the muscles begin to spasm, they can spread pain upwards and even downwards. This is where the misdiagnosis of lower back pain comes in.

Pelvic Floor Pain and Back Pain

The Pelvic Floor

The pelvic floor is comprised of muscles and connective tissue, known as fascia. The muscles and fascia intertwine, creating a support system for the pelvic organs. The pelvic floor muscles act as a spring system that supports the organs. When downward pressure is applied, and the spring system is working correctly, they push back up to support the muscles. These muscles create the base known as the core. The core muscles support the abdomen, diaphragm, and back muscles, supporting the spine. This is why back, pelvic pain is prevalent as these muscles are interconnected.

Pelvic Floor Dysfunction and Back Pain

If there is pelvic floor dysfunction, there is an inability to control the muscles. There can be too much or insufficient tension, resulting in urinary incontinence or inability to complete bowel movements. It can also be mistaken for back pain or contributes to pelvic and low back pain. The core muscles support the torso and promote stabilization during movement. If they are not working correctly, the torso and pelvis become unstable. The SI – sacroiliac joints linked with the pelvis and the lower spine can begin to present with posterior pelvic and back pain.


Dysfunction can present in several ways, including:

Causes of Dysfunction

Causes of dysfunction include:

  • Weakness of the muscles or tight muscles.
  • Vaginal dryness by a lack of estrogen during menopause.
  • Tight inner thigh muscles.
  • Back pain itself can cause dysfunction.

Women make up the majority of cases that result from:

  • Pregnancy
  • Childbirth
  • Endometriosis – a condition in which uterine tissue grows outside the uterus.

Men can also develop problems. As a man’s body ages, prostate problems can cause urinary leakage and frequency problems. It can develop from activities like bicycling. The seat can compress the pudendal nerve, causing pain and dysfunction.

Retraining the Muscles

The dysfunction can be helped by reactivating and strengthening the pelvic and core muscles. Training the pelvic floor and the core muscles will help boost support for the spine and alleviate discomfort and pain. First, it is recommended to get a physical evaluation by a chiropractor or physical therapist to determine if the pelvic floor muscles are too tight or weak. The objective is to improve the strength of the pelvic floor muscles or relax them if they are too tight. A chiropractor and physical therapist can work on the muscles, educate on stretches, exercises, nutrition, and offer additional help and support.

Body Composition

Muscle Adaptation

The point of resistance training is to get the muscles to function more effectively. It begins with the contractile proteins that control muscle shortening and lengthening. Resistance exercise can cause some of the proteins to get pulled apart. The stress the muscles experience is the stimulus for the muscles to rebuild bigger, stronger, or more powerful. After resistance exercise, the muscle synthesizes proteins helped by nutritional stimuli and protein consumption. Satellite cells also activate to help build up the broken-down muscle. Resistance exercise causes activation.


Cleveland Clinic. (2020). “Pelvic Floor Dysfunction.”

National Institutes of Health. (September 2008) “Roughly One-Quarter of U.S. Women Affected by Pelvic Floor Disorders”

Smith, Christopher P. “Male chronic pelvic pain: An update.” Indian journal of urology: IJU: journal of the Urological Society of India vol. 32,1 (2016): 34-9. doi:10.4103/0970-1591.173105

World Health Organization. (2013) “Low back pain”