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Functional Medicine

Back Clinic Functional Medicine Team. Functional medicine is an evolution in the practice of medicine that better addresses the healthcare needs of the 21st century. By shifting the traditional disease-centered focus of medical practice to a more patient-centered approach, functional medicine addresses the whole person, not just an isolated set of symptoms.

Practitioners spend time with their patients, listening to their histories and looking at the interactions among genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that can influence long-term health and complex, chronic disease. In this way, functional medicine supports the unique expression of health and vitality for each individual.

By changing the disease-centered focus of medical practice to this patient-centered approach, our physicians are able to support the healing process by viewing health and illness as part of a cycle in which all components of the human biological system interact dynamically with the environment. This process helps to seek and identify genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors that may shift a person’s health from illness to well-being.

Turkey Nutrition Facts: The Complete Guide

Turkey Nutrition Facts: The Complete Guide

For individuals watching their food intake during the Thanksgiving holiday, can knowing the nutritional value of turkey help maintain diet health?

Turkey Nutrition Facts: The Complete Guide

Nutrition and Benefits

Minimally processed turkey can be a beneficial source of protein, vitamins, and minerals. However, processed turkey can be high in sugar, unhealthy fats, and sodium.


Nutrition information for a roasted turkey leg with the skin – 3 ounces – 85g. (U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2018)

  • Calories – 177
  • Fat – 8.4
  • Sodium – 65.4mg
  • Carbohydrates – 0g
  • Fiber – 0g
  • Sugars – 0g
  • Protein – 23.7g


  • Turkey does not contain any carbohydrates.
  • Certain deli lunch meats contain carbs as the turkey is breaded, marinated, or coated in a sauce containing sugar or added during processing.
  • Choosing fresh can make a big difference in sugar content.


  • Most of the fat comes from the skin.
  • Turkey generally has equal parts of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat.
  • Removing the skin and cooking without added fat significantly reduces total fat content.


  • Turkey is an excellent source of complete protein, with around 24 grams in a 3-ounce serving.
  • Leaner cuts, like skinless turkey breast, have more protein.

Vitamins and Minerals

  • Provides vitamin B12, calcium, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and selenium.
  • Dark meat is higher in iron than the white meat.

Health Benefits

Supports Muscle Retention

  • Sarcopenia, or muscle wasting, commonly leads to frailty in elderly individuals.
  • Getting enough protein at every meal is essential for older adults to maintain muscle mass and physical mobility.
  • Turkey can help meet guidelines suggesting lean meat consumption 4-5 times a week to maintain muscle health with aging. (Anna Maria Martone, et al., 2017)

Reduces Diverticulitis Flare-Ups

Diverticulitis is inflammation of the colon. Dietary factors that influence the risk of diverticulitis include:

  • Fiber intake – lowers risk.
  • Processed red meat intake – raises risk.
  • Intake of red meat with higher total fat – raises risk.
  1. Researchers studied 253 men with diverticulitis and determined that replacing one serving of red meat with a serving of poultry or fish reduces the risk of diverticulitis by 20%. (Yin Cao et al., 2018)
  2. The study’s limitations are that the meat intake was recorded in men only, the intake was self-reported, and the amount consumed at each eating episode was not recorded.
  3. It may be a helpful substitution for anyone at risk for diverticulitis.

Prevents Anemia

  • Turkey offers nutrients required by blood cells.
  • It provides heme iron, easily absorbed during digestion, to prevent iron deficiency anemia. (National Institutes of Health. 2023)
  • Turkey also contains folate and vitamin B12, which are needed in the formation and proper function of red blood cells.
  • Regular turkey consumption can help maintain healthy blood cells.

Supports Heart Health

  • Turkey is a lean alternative to other low-sodium meats, especially if the skin is removed and cooked fresh.
  • Turkey is also high in the amino acid arginine.
  • Arginine can help keep arteries open and relaxed as a precursor to nitric oxide. (Patrick J. Skerrett, 2012)


Meat allergies can happen at any age. A turkey allergy is possible and may be associated with allergies to other types of poultry and red meat.  Symptoms can include: (American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 2019)

  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Wheezing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Repetitive cough
  • Swelling
  • Anaphylaxis

Storage and Safety


  • The USDA recommends 1 pound for each person.
  • That means a family of five needs a 5-pound turkey, a group of 12 a 12-pound. (U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015)
  • Keep fresh meat in the refrigerator until ready to cook.
  • Frozen pre-stuffed turkeys labeled with the USDA or state mark of inspection have been prepared under safe, controlled conditions.
  • Cook frozen pre-stuffed turkeys directly from the frozen state rather than thawing first. (U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015)
  1. Safe ways to thaw a frozen turkey: in the refrigerator, in cold water, or microwave oven.
  2. They should be thawed for a specified amount of time using guidelines based on weight.
  3. It needs to be cooked to an internal temperature of 165 degrees Fahrenheit.
  4. Cooked turkey needs to be refrigerated within 1–2 hours after cooking and used within 3–4 days.
  5. Turkey leftovers stored in the freezer should be eaten within 2–6 months.

Eating Right to Feel Better


U.S. Department of Agriculture. FoodData central. (2018). Turkey, all classes, leg, meat and skin, cooked, roasted.

Martone, A. M., Marzetti, E., Calvani, R., Picca, A., Tosato, M., Santoro, L., Di Giorgio, A., Nesci, A., Sisto, A., Santoliquido, A., & Landi, F. (2017). Exercise and Protein Intake: A Synergistic Approach against Sarcopenia. BioMed research international, 2017, 2672435.

Cao, Y., Strate, L. L., Keeley, B. R., Tam, I., Wu, K., Giovannucci, E. L., & Chan, A. T. (2018). Meat intake and risk of diverticulitis among men. Gut, 67(3), 466–472.

National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. (2023). Iron: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals.

Skerrett PJ. Harvard Health Publishing, Harvard Medical School. (2012). Turkey: A Healthy Base of Holiday Meals.

American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. (2019). Meat Allergy.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2015). Let’s Talk Turkey — A Consumer Guide to Safely Roasting a Turkey.

Acupuncture: an Alternative Treatment for Allergies

Acupuncture: an Alternative Treatment for Allergies

For individuals suffering from allergies, could using acupuncture help relieve and manage symptoms?

Acupuncture: an Alternative Treatment for Allergies

Acupuncture Can Help With Allergies

Acupuncture is becoming a more respected alternative treatment for various medical issues, from anxiety to fibromyalgia to weight loss. There is evidence that acupuncture can help with allergies by alleviating symptoms and improving the quality of life. (Shaoyan Feng, et al., 2015) The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation recommends doctors offer acupuncture to patients looking for nonpharmacological treatments for their allergies or refer them to an acupuncturist. (Michael D. Seidman, et al., 2015)


Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese medicine/TCM practice in which extremely thin needles are inserted into the body at specific points, creating a network of energy pathways known as meridians.

  • These pathways circulate vital life energy/chi or qi.
  • Each meridian is associated with a different body system.
  • Needles are placed to target the organs associated with the condition being treated.
  1. Acupuncture can help with allergies by targeting several meridians, including the lungs, colon, stomach, and spleen. These meridians are believed to circulate defensive life energy or a type of immunity energy.
  2. A backup of defensive energy or a deficiency can cause allergy symptoms like swelling, watery eyes, runny nose, sneezing, allergic eczema, and conjunctivitis. (Bettina Hauswald, Yury M. Yarin. 2014)
  3. The objective is to stimulate the points to restore balance in the energies and relieve symptoms.

Scientific Theories

  • One theory is the needles work directly on nerve fibers, influencing messages to the brain or the autonomic nervous system and transmission of signals within the body, including the immune system. (Tony Y. Chon, Mark C. Lee. 2013)
  • Another is the needles influence certain activities of cells, particularly the transport, breakdown, and clearance of bioactive mediators.
  • The combination of these actions is thought to decrease inflammatory conditions like allergic rhinitis – hay fever, in which the inside of the nose becomes inflamed and swollen after breathing in an allergen. (Bettina Hauswald, Yury M. Yarin. 2014)

A 2015 review concluded there have been high-quality randomized controlled trials demonstrating acupuncture’s efficacy in treating seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Smaller studies have shown some preliminary benefits of acupuncture when compared with antihistamines, but more research is needed. (Malcolm B. Taw, et al., 2015)

Treating Allergies

  • Some individuals who choose acupuncture are seeking alternatives to standard treatment like medications, nasal sprays, and immunotherapy.
  • Others are looking for ways to enhance the effectiveness of medications already being taken, such as antihistamines or nasal sprays, or shorten how long or how frequently they are needed.
  • Initial treatment usually involves weekly or twice-weekly appointments over several weeks or months, depending on symptom severity.
  • This may be followed by annual treatments or on an as-needed basis. (American Academy of Medical Acupuncture. 2020)
  1. Most states require a license, certification, or registration to practice acupuncture, but these vary from state to state.
  2. Recommendations are for a practitioner who is certified by the National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine.
  3. A medical doctor who offers acupuncture.
  4. The American Academy of Medical Acupuncture has a list of acupuncturists who are also medical doctors.

Improperly administered acupuncture needles can cause serious side effects that range from infections, punctured organs, collapsed lungs, and injury to the central nervous system. (National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. 2022) Before trying acupuncture, consult your primary healthcare provider, allergist, or integrative medicine specialist to make sure it’s a safe and viable option and the best way to integrate it into overall allergy care.

Fighting Inflammation Naturally


Feng, S., Han, M., Fan, Y., Yang, G., Liao, Z., Liao, W., & Li, H. (2015). Acupuncture for the treatment of allergic rhinitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American journal of rhinology & allergy, 29(1), 57–62.

Seidman, M. D., Gurgel, R. K., Lin, S. Y., Schwartz, S. R., Baroody, F. M., Bonner, J. R., Dawson, D. E., Dykewicz, M. S., Hackell, J. M., Han, J. K., Ishman, S. L., Krouse, H. J., Malekzadeh, S., Mims, J. W., Omole, F. S., Reddy, W. D., Wallace, D. V., Walsh, S. A., Warren, B. E., Wilson, M. N., … Guideline Otolaryngology Development Group. AAO-HNSF (2015). Clinical practice guideline: Allergic rhinitis. Otolaryngology–head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 152(1 Suppl), S1–S43.

Hauswald, B., & Yarin, Y. M. (2014). Acupuncture in allergic rhinitis: A Mini-Review. Allergo journal international, 23(4), 115–119.

Chon, T. Y., & Lee, M. C. (2013). Acupuncture. Mayo Clinic proceedings, 88(10), 1141–1146.

Taw, M. B., Reddy, W. D., Omole, F. S., & Seidman, M. D. (2015). Acupuncture and allergic rhinitis. Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery, 23(3), 216–220.

American Academy of Medical Acupuncture. (2020). Acupuncture and Seasonal Allergies.

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. (2022). Acupuncture: What You Need To Know.

Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: What You Need to Know

Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: What You Need to Know

Individuals with digestive problems that cannot be diagnosed could be experiencing functional gastrointestinal disorders. Could understanding the types help in developing effective treatment plans?

Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: What You Need to Know

Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

Functional gastrointestinal disorders, or FGDs, are disorders of the digestive system in which the presence of structural or tissue abnormality cannot explain symptoms. Functional gastrointestinal disorders lack identifiable biomarkers and are diagnosed based on symptoms. (Christopher J. Black, et al., 2020)

Rome Criteria

FGDs used diagnoses of exclusion, meaning that they could only be diagnosed after organic/identifiable disease was ruled out. However, in 1988, a group of researchers and healthcare providers met to devise strict criteria for the diagnosis of the various types of FGDs. The criteria is known as the Rome Criteria. (Max J. Schmulson, Douglas A. Drossman. 2017)


A comprehensive list as described by the Rome III criteria (Ami D. Sperber et al., 2021)

Functional Esophageal Disorders

  • Functional heartburn
  • Functional chest pain believed to be of esophageal origin
  • Functional dysphagia
  • Globus

Functional Gastroduodenal Disorders

  • Unspecified excessive belching
  • Functional dyspepsia – includes postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome.
  • Chronic idiopathic nausea
  • Aerophagia
  • Functional vomiting
  • Cyclic vomiting syndrome
  • Rumination syndrome in adults

Functional Bowel Disorders

  • Irritable bowel syndrome – IBS
  • Functional constipation
  • Functional diarrhea
  • Unspecified functional bowel disorder

Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome

  • Functional abdominal pain – FAP

Functional Gallbladder and Sphincter of Oddi Disorders

  • Functional gallbladder disorder
  • Functional biliary Sphincter of Oddi disorder
  • Functional pancreatic Sphincter of Oddi disorder

Functional Anorectal Disorders

  • Functional fecal incontinence
  • Functional Anorectal Pain – includes chronic proctalgia, Levator ani syndrome, unspecified functional anorectal pain, and proctalgia fugax.
  • Functional Defecation Disorders – include dyssynergic defecation and inadequate defecatory propulsion.

Childhood Functional GI Disorders

Infant/Toddler (Jeffrey S. Hyams et al., 2016)

  • Infant colic
  • Functional constipation
  • Functional diarrhea
  • Cyclic vomiting syndrome
  • Infant regurgitation
  • Infant rumination syndrome
  • Infant dyschezia

Childhood Functional GI Disorders:


  • Vomiting and Aerophagia – cyclic vomiting syndrome, adolescent rumination syndrome, and aerophagia
  • Abdominal Pain-Related Functional GI Disorders include:
  1. functional dyspepsia
  2. IBS
  3. Abdominal migraine
  4. Childhood functional abdominal pain
  5. Childhood functional abdominal pain syndrome
  • Constipation – functional constipation
  • Incontinence – nonretentive fecal incontinence


Although the Rome criteria allow the diagnosis of FGDs to be symptom-based, a healthcare provider may still run standard diagnostic tests to rule out other diseases or look for structural problems resulting in symptoms.


Although no visible signs of disease or structural problems may be identified as causing the symptoms, it does not mean that they are not treatable and manageable. For individuals who suspect they may have or have been diagnosed with a functional gastrointestinal disorder, it will be essential to work with a healthcare provider on a working treatment plan. Treatment options can include: (Asma Fikree, Peter Byrne. 2021)

  • Physical therapy
  • Nutritional and dietary adjustments
  • Stress management
  • Psychotherapy
  • Medication
  • Biofeedback

Eating Right To Feel Better


Black, C. J., Drossman, D. A., Talley, N. J., Ruddy, J., & Ford, A. C. (2020). Functional gastrointestinal disorders: advances in understanding and management. Lancet (London, England), 396(10263), 1664–1674.

Schmulson, M. J., & Drossman, D. A. (2017). What Is New in Rome IV. Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility, 23(2), 151–163.

Sperber, A. D., Bangdiwala, S. I., Drossman, D. A., Ghoshal, U. C., Simren, M., Tack, J., Whitehead, W. E., Dumitrascu, D. L., Fang, X., Fukudo, S., Kellow, J., Okeke, E., Quigley, E. M. M., Schmulson, M., Whorwell, P., Archampong, T., Adibi, P., Andresen, V., Benninga, M. A., Bonaz, B., … Palsson, O. S. (2021). Worldwide Prevalence and Burden of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Results of Rome Foundation Global Study. Gastroenterology, 160(1), 99–114.e3.

Hyams, J. S., Di Lorenzo, C., Saps, M., Shulman, R. J., Staiano, A., & van Tilburg, M. (2016). Functional Disorders: Children and Adolescents. Gastroenterology, S0016-5085(16)00181-5. Advance online publication.

Fikree, A., & Byrne, P. (2021). Management of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Clinical medicine (London, England), 21(1), 44–52.

Cooking with Pomegranates: An Introduction

Cooking with Pomegranates: An Introduction

For individuals looking to increase their antioxidant, fiber, and vitamin intake, can adding pomegranates to their diet help?

Cooking with Pomegranates: An Introduction


Pomegranates can amplify various dishes, from breakfasts to sides to dinners, with their balanced blend of mild sweetness, tartness, and crunch from their seeds.

Health Benefits

The fruit has been found to be a healthy source of vitamins, fiber, and antioxidants. A medium-sized fruit contains:

Ways to use a pomegranate include:


Stir in some pomegranate arils before serving. They will provide an unexpected crunch that contrasts deliciously with guacamole’s smoothness.

  1. Mash 2 ripe avocados
  2. Mix in 1/4 cup diced red onion
  3. 1/4 tsp. salt
  4. 1 Tbsp. lemon juice
  5. 2 cloves garlic – minced
  6. 1/2 cup chopped fresh cilantro
  7. Stir in 1/4 cup pomegranate arils
  8. Serves 6

Nutrition per serving:

  • 144 calories
  • 13.2 grams fat
  • 2.8 grams of saturated fat
  • 103 milligrams sodium
  • 7.3 grams carbs
  • 4.8 grams fiber
  • 1.5 grams protein


Smoothies provide extra nutrition and a healthy snack.

  1. In a blender, mix 1/2 cup pomegranate arils
  2. 1 frozen banana
  3. 1/4 cup low-fat Greek yogurt
  4. 2 tsp. honey
  5. Splash of orange juice
  6. Pour into a glass and enjoy!

Nutrition per serving:

  • 287 calories
  • 2.1 grams fat
  • 0.6 grams of saturated fat
  • 37 milligrams sodium
  • 67.5 grams carbs
  • 6.1 grams fiber
  • 4.9 grams protein


Enhance oatmeal as pomegranates bounce off other fruits, sweeteners, and butter nicely.

  1. Prepare 1/2 cup oats
  2. Stir in 1/2 of a medium banana, sliced
  3. 1 Tbsp. brown sugar
  4. 2 Tbsp. pomegranate arils
  5. 1/2 tsp. ground cinnamon

Nutrition per serving:

  • 254 calories
  • 3 grams fat
  • 0.5 grams of saturated fat
  • 6 milligrams sodium
  • 52.9 grams carbohydrates
  • 6.7 grams fiber
  • 6.2 grams protein

Brown Rice

Another way to use pomegranates is on rice.

  1. Cook 1 cup brown rice.
  2. Toss with 1/4 cup pomegranate arils
  3. 1 Tbsp. olive oil
  4. 1/4 cup chopped, toasted hazelnuts
  5. 1 Tbsp. fresh thyme leaves
  6. Salt and pepper to taste
  7. Makes 4 servings

Nutrition per serving:

  • 253 calories
  • 9.3 grams fat
  • 1.1 grams of saturated fat
  • 2 milligrams sodium
  • 38.8 grams carbohydrates
  • 2.8 grams fiber
  • 4.8 grams protein

Cranberry Sauce

Make a tangy and crunchy cranberry sauce.

  1. In a medium saucepan, combine 12 oz. fresh cranberries
  2. 2 cups pomegranate juice
  3. 1/2 cup granulated sugar
  4. Cook over medium heat – adjust if the mixture gets too hot
  5. Stir frequently for about 20 minutes or until most of the cranberries have popped and released their juice.
  6. Stir in 1 cup pomegranate arils
  7. Serves 8

Nutrition per serving:

  • 97 calories
  • 0.1 grams fat
  • 0 grams of saturated fat
  • 2 milligrams sodium
  • 22.5 grams carbohydrates
  • 1.9 grams fiber
  • 0.3 grams protein

Infused Water

A fruit-infused water can help reach proper hydration.

  1. Place 1 cup pomegranate arils
  2. 1/4 cup fresh mint leaves in the insert of a 1-quart infuser water bottle
  3. Mix lightly
  4. Fill with filtered water
  5. Refrigerate for at least 4 hours to let flavors steep
  6. Serves 4
  • Each serving will offer only trace amounts of nutrients, which depend on how much pomegranate juice infuses into the water.

For any questions about more specific nutrition goals or how to achieve them, consult the Injury Medical Chiropractic and Functional Medicine Clinic Health Coach and/or Nutritionist.

Healthy Diet and Chiropractic


FoodData Central. U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2019) Pomegranates, raw.

Zarfeshany, A., Asgary, S., & Javanmard, S. H. (2014). Potent health effects of pomegranate. Advanced biomedical research, 3, 100.

Benefits of Resistant Starch: the Definitive Guide

Benefits of Resistant Starch: the Definitive Guide

For individuals with digestive and other health issues, could resistant starch provide health benefits?

Benefits of Resistant Starch: the Definitive Guide

Resistant Starch

Typical starchy foods are simple starches that are rapidly digested. This sends their sugars into the bloodstream, contributing to weight gain and increasing the risk of diabetes and heart disease. (Erik E. J. G. Aller, et al., 2011) Resistant starch is a food component that is a type resistant to digestion. This means that it passes into the large intestine and interacts with the gut flora. Foods that contain resistant starch pass through the stomach and small intestine without being absorbed. In the large intestine, they are fermented by the gut bacteria which releases substances that are beneficial to health.​

Health Benefits

Studies on the health benefits are ongoing. Scientists are researching how it can help with weight management and colon health:

Weight Management

Research is beginning to show indications that foods with resistant starch can help with weight loss and the ability to help offset the diseases associated with weight gain that include: (Janine A. Higgins. 2014)

  • High cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Cardiovascular disease

Colon Health

In addition, researchers are finding preliminary evidence indicating that resistant starch might possibly help with: (Diane F. Birt, et al., 2013)

  • A prebiotic that encourages a healthy balance of gut flora.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease symptom improvement.
  • Prevention of colon cancer.
  • Protection against diverticulitis.

However, more research is needed.

Consumption Amount

Estimates on how much should be consumed range from a minimum of 6 grams to a maximum of 30 grams. It is estimated that most individuals consume less than 5 grams per day, (Mary M. Murphy, et al., 2008). As individuals increase their intake, it is recommended to do so slowly, to minimize unwanted gas and bloating.


  • Bananas are a healthy source of resistant starch.
  • They have the maximum amount when they are unripe.
  • The resistant starch content reduces as the banana ripens.
  • If green/unripe bananas are not appealing, making a smoothie can help with the taste.


  • Potatoes have their highest level of resistant starch when raw.
  • However, individuals can maximize their intake by allowing the potatoes to cool before eating.


  • Levels of resistant starch depend on whether the rice is white or brown.
  • Similar to potatoes, intake can be maximized from rice by allowing the rice to cool.


  • Cooking oats in water, as most are accustomed to making oatmeal, diminishes the resistant starch content.
  • Rolled or steel-cut oats are recommended as dependable sources of resistant starch.


  • Chickpeas, also known as garbanzo beans, are nutritional powerhouses.
  • They are a healthy source of dietary fiber, along with many vitamins and minerals, and resistant starch.
  • Cooked and/or canned chickpeas contain high levels of resistant starch.
  • They go with salads or as a side dish or snack.
  • For individuals with IBS, well-rinsed canned chickpeas are considered to be low in FODMAPs or carbohydrates that can contribute to symptoms. (Anamaria Cozma-Petruţ, et al., 2017)
  • It is recommended to keep the serving size to a 1/4 cup.


  • Lentils serve as a healthy source of plant-based protein.
  • Cooked they can provide resistant starch.
  • They can be prepared in soups or side dishes.
  • From a can, they can be IBS-friendly by being well-rinsed and limited to a 1/2 cup serving.


  • Various breads offer varying levels of resistant starch.
  • Pumpernickel bread contains high levels.
  • Breadsticks and pizza crusts have high levels.
  • Individuals with IBS may be reactive to the FODMAP fructan or the gluten protein.
  • Other recommended high-resistant starch options are corn tortillas or artisanal sourdough bread that is traditionally prepared.

Green Peas

  • Green peas, even when cooked, are a healthy source of resistant starch.
  • They can be prepared in soups or as a side dish.
  • However, green peas have been found to be high in the FODMAP GOS and could be problematic for individuals with IBS. (Anamaria Cozma-Petruţ, et al., 2017)


  • Most types of cooked and/or canned beans are recommended sources of resistant starch.
  • The highest levels are found in white and kidney beans.
  • They can be served in soups, as a side dish, or mixed with rice.
  • Beans are a high-FODMAP food and could contribute to digestive symptoms in individuals with IBS.

Body In Balance: Chiropractic Fitness and Nutrition


Aller, E. E., Abete, I., Astrup, A., Martinez, J. A., & van Baak, M. A. (2011). Starches, sugars and obesity. Nutrients, 3(3), 341–369.

Higgins J. A. (2014). Resistant starch and energy balance: impact on weight loss and maintenance. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 54(9), 1158–1166.

Birt, D. F., Boylston, T., Hendrich, S., Jane, J. L., Hollis, J., Li, L., McClelland, J., Moore, S., Phillips, G. J., Rowling, M., Schalinske, K., Scott, M. P., & Whitley, E. M. (2013). Resistant starch: promise for improving human health. Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), 4(6), 587–601.

Murphy, M. M., Douglass, J. S., & Birkett, A. (2008). Resistant starch intakes in the United States. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108(1), 67–78.

Cozma-Petruţ, A., Loghin, F., Miere, D., & Dumitraşcu, D. L. (2017). Diet in irritable bowel syndrome: What to recommend, not what to forbid to patients!. World journal of gastroenterology, 23(21), 3771–3783.

Build Mental Toughness to Reach Maximum Athletic Potential

Build Mental Toughness to Reach Maximum Athletic Potential

It can be difficult for individuals and athletes to stay motivated, manage stress and prevent becoming overwhelmed. Can mental toughness and a positive attitude help increase potential and performance levels?

Build Mental Toughness to Reach Maximum Athletic Potential

Mental Toughness

Athletes and fitness enthusiasts work on conditioning, skills training, and perfecting techniques. Physical training can take individuals far but another necessary part of maximizing athletic potential is building mental toughness and having the right attitude. Like anything, mental training takes time, effort, and regular adjustments to find ways to shift a losing or bad attitude into a positive one that can bring out the best.

Attitude Is Important

If negativity begins to set in like dealing with an injury, getting rid of self-limiting beliefs can be difficult, as well as generate optimism to rise up and succeed. For athletes or individuals who enjoy competitive sports, developing a positive mental attitude will help with:

  • Emotions that can affect cognitive functioning strategies.
  • Energy levels.
  • Other aspects of physical performance.

Mental Strategies

Mood Improvement

Individuals frustrated by a pessimistic perspective tend to dwell on problems or issues. To shift into a positive mood do something to lift your spirits, even if you don’t think it will help.

  • Listen to your favorite or uplifting music.
  • Watch an inspirational movie.
  • Read a sports psychology book.
  • Get together or call a teammate or friend that are cheerful and upbeat.
  • Play different games just for fun.
  • Take a break, go to the park, walk around, and meditate.
  • Get into hobbies.
  • Relax with a therapeutic massage.

Positive Self Talk

Continuing sports psychology research shows that practicing positive self-talk can improve athletic performance. (Nadja Walter, et al., 2019) Sports psychologists describe this through the idea that thoughts create beliefs, that drive actions.

Positive self-talk can take different forms.
For some reciting a specific phrase, sentence, or a single word can effectively manage thoughts, push out the negativity, and focus on taking care of business. Anything that inspires can include:

  • Focus
  • Remember the fundamentals!
  • You know what to do!
  • You can do it!
  • You got this!

Research shows that positive self-talk reduces anxiety and increases self-confidence, optimization, efficacy, and performance. (Nadja Walter, et al., 2019) However, self-talk needs to be practiced and part of a regular routine to be effective.


Another strategy is using visualization exercises.

  • This means imagining various scenarios in which competition is happening and things are working out. (Mathias Reiser, Dirk Büsch, Jörn Munzert. 2011)
  • This could be using all the senses to imagine the venue where the tournament is taking place, the sound of the crowd, the smells, how the ground or court feels, and/or how the ball or specific sports object feels.
  • The wisdom is if you can think it, you can do it, once that is determined apply strategies to get there.

Sports Injury Rehabilitation


Walter, N., Nikoleizig, L., & Alfermann, D. (2019). Effects of Self-Talk Training on Competitive Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, Volitional Skills, and Performance: An Intervention Study with Junior Sub-Elite Athletes. Sports (Basel, Switzerland), 7(6), 148.

Reiser, M., Büsch, D., & Munzert, J. (2011). Strength gains by motor imagery with different ratios of physical to mental practice. Frontiers in psychology, 2, 194.

Boost Gut Microbes With Avocado for Optimal Health

Boost Gut Microbes With Avocado for Optimal Health

Individuals need to eat more fiber for optimal gut health. Can adding avocado to their diet help improve the gut microbe diversity?

Boost Gut Microbes With Avocado for Optimal Health

Avocado Gut Support

A diverse gut microbiome is beneficial to overall health. According to a recent study, eating one avocado a day can help maintain the gut microbes healthy, diverse, and balanced. (Sharon V. Thompson, et al., 2021) The researchers observed positive changes in gut bacteria and increased bacterial diversity in individuals who consumed an avocado every day for 12 weeks. (Susanne M Henning, et al., 2019)

Gut Diversity

The gut microbiome refers to the microorganisms living in the intestines. There are around 100 trillion microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and more, exist in the gastrointestinal tract. (Ana M. Valdes, et al., 2018) Having a diverse microbiome means that the body has a range of different organisms that offer various health benefits. Not having enough bacterial diversity has been linked to: (Ana M. Valdes, et al., 2018)

  • Arthritis
  • Obesity
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Celiac disease
  • Arterial stiffness
  • Atopic eczema

Why Avocados?

  • The Institute of Medicine recommends a daily fiber intake ranging from 19 grams to 38 grams per day, depending on various factors like age. (Diane Quagliani, Patricia Felt-Gunderson. 2016)
  • Approximately 95% of adults and children do not consume the recommended amount of fiber. (Diane Quagliani, Patricia Felt-Gunderson. 2016)
  • Including foods like avocados in a healthy diet can help meet daily fiber requirements.
  • Fruit fiber like pectin, has been shown to promote a healthy gut microbiome as well. (Beukema M, et al., 2020)
  • Researchers suggest this could be because of pectin’s positive effect on beneficial probiotics.(Nadja Larsen, et al., 2018)
  • Although further research is needed fiber is believed to help protect the lining of the colon by increasing the bulk and weight of stool and expediting elimination.
  • Fiber also adds bulk to an individual’s diet and slows the speed of digestion, which makes the body feel fuller longer.

Improved Gut

Individuals can support a healthy microbiota by making small adjustments in their diet, including:

  • Eating a variety of fruits and vegetables with the skin, as this is where a majority of the nutrition is.
  • Fermented foods like yogurt, kombucha, sauerkraut, kimchi, and kefir.
  • Limiting consumption of processed foods, sugar, and artificial sweeteners.
  • More whole-grain foods.

Ways to eat more avocados include adding them to:

  • Smoothies
  • Salads
  • Sandwichs
  • Guacamole
  • If there are more avocados that can be eaten before they overripen, they can be frozen.
  • Peel and slice them first, then place them in freezer bags to have year-round.
  • They are rich in healthy fat, however, in moderation, they are not likely to contribute to weight gain.

Individuals can work toward having a diverse gut microbiome by paying attention to the foods they eat. Specific foods and dietary patterns can influence the different types of bacterial diversity which can support health.

Smart Choices, Better Health


Thompson, S. V., Bailey, M. A., Taylor, A. M., Kaczmarek, J. L., Mysonhimer, A. R., Edwards, C. G., Reeser, G. E., Burd, N. A., Khan, N. A., & Holscher, H. D. (2021). Avocado Consumption Alters Gastrointestinal Bacteria Abundance and Microbial Metabolite Concentrations among Adults with Overweight or Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The Journal of nutrition, 151(4), 753–762.

Henning, S. M., Yang, J., Woo, S. L., Lee, R. P., Huang, J., Rasmusen, A., Carpenter, C. L., Thames, G., Gilbuena, I., Tseng, C. H., Heber, D., & Li, Z. (2019). Hass Avocado Inclusion in a Weight-Loss Diet Supported Weight Loss and Altered Gut Microbiota: A 12-Week Randomized, Parallel-Controlled Trial. Current developments in nutrition, 3(8), nzz068.

Valdes, A. M., Walter, J., Segal, E., & Spector, T. D. (2018). Role of the gut microbiota in nutrition and health. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 361, k2179.

Quagliani, D., & Felt-Gunderson, P. (2016). Closing America’s Fiber Intake Gap: Communication Strategies From a Food and Fiber Summit. American journal of lifestyle medicine, 11(1), 80–85.

Beukema, M., Faas, M. M., & de Vos, P. (2020). The effects of different dietary fiber pectin structures on the gastrointestinal immune barrier: impact via gut microbiota and direct effects on immune cells. Experimental & molecular medicine, 52(9), 1364–1376.

Larsen, N., Cahú, T. B., Isay Saad, S. M., Blennow, A., & Jespersen, L. (2018). The effect of pectins on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. in gastrointestinal juices is related to their structure and physical properties. Food microbiology, 74, 11–20.