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Back Pain

Back Clinic Back Pain Chiropractic Treatment Team. At the El Paso Back Clinic, we take back pain very seriously.

After diagnosing the root cause of your discomfort/pain, we’ll do everything within our power to cure the area and relieve your symptoms.

Common causes of back pain:
There is an infinite number of forms of back pain, and a variety of injuries and diseases may cause discomfort in this area of the body. One of the most Frequent ones we see one of our patients in East Side El Paso and surrounding areas comprise:

Disc Herniation
Inside the backbone are flexible discs that cushion your bones and absorb shock. Whenever these discs are broken, they may compress a nerve leading to lower extremity numbness. StressWhen a muscle at the trunk is overexerted or hurt, causing stiffness and pain, this type of injury is generally classified as a back strain. This can be the consequence of attempting to lift an item that can result in excruciating pain and impairment and is too heavy. Diagnosing the underlying cause of your pain.

Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is characterized by the slow wearing down of protective cartilage. When the back is affected by this condition, it causes damage to the bones that results in chronic pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. SprainIf ligaments in your spine and back are stretched or torn, it’s called a spine sprain. Typically, this injury causes pain in the region. Spasms cause back muscles to overwork they may start to contract, and can even stay contracted– also called a muscle spasm. Muscle spasms can present with pain and stiffness until the strain resolves.

We want to accomplish the diagnosis straight away, integrating a background and exam along with state-of-the-art imaging, so we can provide you with the most efficient therapy choices. To begin, we will speak with you regarding your symptoms, which will provide us with critical information regarding your underlying condition. We’ll then perform a physical exam, during which we’ll check for posture issues, evaluate your spine and assess your backbone. If we guess injuries, like a disk or neurological injury, we’ll probably order imaging tests to obtain an analysis.

Regenerative remedies to your back pain. At the El Paso Back Clinic, you may be certain that you’re in the best possible hands with our Doctor of Chiropractic and Massage Therapist. Our purpose during your pain treatment isn’t only to relieve your symptoms — but also to avoid a recurrence and to treat your pain.


Back Discomfort After Eating: El Paso Back Clinic

Back Discomfort After Eating: El Paso Back Clinic

Back pain after eating is often the result of conditions and/or disorders in other areas of the body that radiate to the back. These problems range from unhealthy posture, digestive issues, bowel problems, ulcers, allergies, etc. This is because the nerves of the back and the abdominal area run through areas of the spine. In addition to the classic symptoms like bloating and gas, individuals can develop symptoms beyond the gut, including sleep problems, fatigue, headaches, urinating problems, muscle aches, pelvic discomfort, and back pain. Chiropractic care and functional medicine can realign the body, alleviate symptoms, and restore function.Back Discomfort After Eating: Injury Medical Chiropractic

Back Discomfort

Back pain after eating can be linked to the body’s digestive process.

Food Intolerances or Allergies

Many individuals are affected by food intolerances or allergies.

  • Individuals in this group can experience inflammation after consuming specific foods.
  • Inflammation could worsen existing back problems.
  • Individuals with food intolerance will have uncomfortable but usually not dangerous symptoms.
  • Individuals with food allergies can experience life-threatening allergic reactions.

Heartburn

Heartburn results from acid reflux, when stomach contents and acid flow back into the esophagus. Heartburn’s key symptom is a burning sensation in the chest. However, heartburn and indigestion do not directly cause back pain. But for individuals with back problems, heartburn can worsen back discomfort.

GERD

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, could cause back pain in individuals with more than two weekly heartburn episodes.
  • The digestive system condition results from the chronic backflow of stomach acid.
  • Over time, the powerful acid can inflame the esophageal lining.
  • A stomach or esophageal ulcer can develop if GERD is not managed.
  • Pain could be felt in the lower to middle back around the stomach and lower intestines.

Ulcers

  • Ulcers can also result from a bacterial infection of Helicobacter pylori (or H. pylori).
  • Long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (or NSAIDs) can also enable ulcer formation.
  • A peptic ulcer (or open sore) can develop on your stomach’s interior lining.
  • The small intestine’s upper portion can also be affected.
  • An H. pylori bacterium infection can cause a peptic ulcer.
  • Long-term NSAID use can cause a peptic ulcer.

Peptic ulcers cause burning pain in the stomach. These flare-ups can worsen existing back problems and pain. Spicy foods and stress don’t cause peptic ulcers but can worsen their effects. In severe cases, a peptic ulcer can cause referred back pain felt in another location than where the pain originates. This means pain could be felt in the lower to middle back adjacent to the stomach and lower intestines.

Kidney Infection

Back pain could result from a bacterial kidney infection.

  • Kidney dysfunction infections, kidney stones, and chronic kidney diseases can be mistaken for general back and side pain.
  • Other symptoms can include chills, fever, nausea, and vomiting.

Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis can develop if the pancreas becomes inflamed, brought on by excess alcohol consumption or gallstones. This definitely can cause back discomfort and pain.

  • Pancreatitis is the inflammation of the pancreas.
  • After eating, individuals can experience worsening abdominal pain that can refer to the back.
  • The body’s network of interconnecting sensory nerves causes the pain to be felt in other areas.
  • Most individuals will experience pain in the upper left or middle abdomen.

Celiac Disease

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease.

When individuals with celiac disease consume foods with gluten, the small intestine gets damaged, and their bodies cannot properly absorb the necessary nutrients.

  • Gluten enteropathy is an allergy to gluten in the diet.
  • It causes inflammation, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, and weight loss.
  • Back pain can result from the symptoms and prolonged bed rest.

Treatment

Besides the back discomfort, there could be a burning sensation during urination or other urinary tract symptoms. Stools could be dark or black, a possible ulcer symptom. To reduce the chances of back discomfort after eating, avoid sugary, spicy, fatty foods or anything that triggers heartburn and reduce alcohol consumption. If you are experiencing frequent episodes of back pain after eating or the pain worsens, contact your physician, healthcare provider, or a chiropractor.


Hormonal Dysfunction In Men


References

Celiac Disease Foundation. (n.d.) “What is celiac disease?” celiac.org/about-celiac-disease/what-is-celiac-disease/

Mayo Clinic. (n.d.) “Celiac disease.” www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/celiac-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20352220#:~:text=Celiac%20disease%2C%20sometimes%20called%20celiac,response%20in%20your%20small%20intestine

Mayo Clinic. (n.d.) “Peptic ulcer.” www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/peptic-ulcer/symptoms-causes/syc-20354223
Cleveland Clinic. (n.d.) “Kidney pain.” my.clevelandclinic.org/health/symptoms/17688-kidney-pain

Pfizer. (April 25, 2022) “Heartburn, acid reflux, or GERD: what’s the difference?” www.pfizer.com/news/articles/heartburn_acid_reflux_or_gerd_what_s_the_difference#:~:text=The%20terms%20acid%20reflux%2C%20heartburn,meals%20or%20when%20lying%20down

Prairie Spine & Pain Institute. (n.d.) “What may cause back pain after eating: symptoms & prevention.” prairiespine.com/spine-care/5-things-that-may-cause-back-pain-after-eating-symptoms-and prevention/#:~:text=Exercises%20practiced%20in%20yoga%2C%20Pilates,chi%20may%20be%20particularly%20beneficial.&text=If%20a%20doctor%20cannot%20identify,ice%2C%20and%20taking%20pain%20relievers.

Piriformis Syndrome & Myofascial Pain Syndrome

Piriformis Syndrome & Myofascial Pain Syndrome

Introduction

The lumbar region of the spine has various muscles and nerve roots that work together with the lower body extremities, like the hips, buttocks, legs, knees, and feet, for mobility and walking function. The various muscles in the buttock region include the gluteal muscles. They have a casual relationship with the hip muscles as they work together for hip mobility and erect good posture in the body. These various muscles and nerves also supply sensory-motor function for the legs to be mobile and provide hip mobility. The piriformis is one of the muscles assisting in the hips and buttock region. When this muscle becomes overused, it can cause mobility issues in the legs and affect a person’s ability to walk. Today’s article looks at the piriformis muscle, how trigger points are associated with piriformis syndrome, and how to manage piriformis syndrome associated with trigger points. We refer patients to certified providers who incorporate multiple methods in the lower body extremities, like sciatic pain and piriformis syndrome treatments related to trigger points, to aid individuals dealing with pain symptoms along the piriformis muscle. We encourage and appreciate patients by referring them to associated medical providers based on their diagnosis, especially when it is appropriate. We understand that education is an excellent solution to asking our providers complex questions at the patient’s request. Dr. Jimenez, D.C., utilizes this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

exercises-for-neck-and-shoulder-pain-from-myofascial-trigger-points-by-dr-andrea-furlan-md-phd_63543ea0

What Is The Piriformis Muscle?

 

Have you been having issues walking from one place to another? Do you feel muscle tightness in your hips or buttock region? Or are you experiencing radiating pain traveling to your knees and feet? These pain symptoms are correlated with trigger points affecting the piriformis muscle. The piriformis is a flat, pear-shaped muscle, one of the six short rotator muscle groups in the gluteal region of the hips and thighs. The rotator muscle groups consist of the following:

  • Gemelli
  • Quadratus Femoris
  • Obturator Internus
  • Obturator Externus

This muscle is parallel to the posterior margins of the gluteus medius and deep into the gluteus maximus. This muscle is very important to the body as it provides lower-body movement by stabilizing the hip joint and can lift and rotate the thighs away from the body. The piriformis muscle also surrounds the sciatic nerve, as this long nerve runs deep beneath the piriformis and enters the gluteal region of the rear. When the piriformis muscle becomes overused or suffers from associated traumatic factors, it can aggravate the sciatic nerve and even develop tiny nodules known as trigger points, causing mobility issues. 

 

Trigger Points Associated With Piriformis Syndrome

 

When abnormal factors affect the piriformis muscles, they can develop into trigger points associated with piriformis syndrome and cause issues in the pelvic and hip regions of the body. According to Dr. Janet G. Travell, M.D., “Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction,” trigger points can be activated when repetitive strain affects the piriformis muscle and causes symptoms of muscle weakness and pain in the hips. This causes overlapping issues in the surrounding muscles and the sciatic nerve, making diagnosing tricky for trigger points. Studies reveal that trigger points associated with piriformis syndrome may potentially cause muscle spasms or an inflammatory process to irritate the sciatic nerve that may be presented as identical to lumbar disk syndrome without neurological findings. Trigger points associated with piriformis syndrome may mimic chronic issues like fibromyalgia. Even though trigger points are tricky to pinpoint in a thorough examination, there are various ways to reduce the pain and prevent trigger points from affecting the piriformis muscle causing sciatic nerve pain. 

 


Trigger Point Of The Week: Piriformis Muscle- Video

Have you been dealing with sciatic nerve pain? Have you found it difficult to walk for a short period? Or are you dealing with muscle tenderness or soreness in your buttock or hips? People experiencing these symptoms could be dealing with piriformis syndrome associated with trigger points. The piriformis is a small, fan-shaped muscle, one of the six short rotator muscle groups that help with hip and thigh mobility through stabilization. The piriformis muscles also surround the sciatic nerve and can succumb to injuries. When traumatic forces affect the hips and thighs, the piriformis muscle develops nodules known as trigger points, causing the muscle to irritate the sciatic nerve and cause pain in the legs. The video above shows where the piriformis muscle is located and how trigger points can mimic sciatic nerve pain in the leg without neurological findings. Studies reveal that trigger points could be a rare anatomical variation that can correlate with piriformis syndrome associated with sciatica. However, there is some good news, as there are ways to manage piriformis syndrome associated with trigger points.


Managing Piriformis Syndrome Associated With Trigger Points

 

Various techniques can help manage piriformis syndrome associated with trigger points to relieve the piriformis muscle. Studies reveal that Kinesio tape on the piriformis muscle can help reduce pain and improve many individuals’ hip joint range of motion. Other techniques like stretching or deep tissue massage can help loosen up the stiff muscles and relieve trigger points from forming on the piriformis. For sciatica pain associated with trigger points along the piriformis muscle, decompression therapy can help the piriformis muscle lay off pressure on the sciatic nerve and reduce aggravated pain. These techniques can help improve hip joint mobility and increase the range of motion to the hips and lower extremities.

 

Conclusion

The piriformis is a small muscle that provides hip and thigh mobility. This small muscle surrounds the sciatic nerve, which helps give motor function to the legs. When traumatic factors affect the piriformis muscle, it can develop trigger points and cause sciatic pain in the hips. This causes mobility issues and pain around the hips. Various treatments are provided to help reduce the trigger points along the piriformis muscle and reduce sciatic nerve pain from causing more problems to the hips and legs mobility.

 

References

Chang, Carol, et al. “Anatomy, Bony Pelvis and Lower Limb, Piriformis Muscle.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 3 Oct. 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519497/.

Pfeifer, T, and W F Fitz. “[The Piriformis Syndrome].” Zeitschrift Fur Orthopadie Und Ihre Grenzgebiete, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1989, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2618150/.

R;, Hashemirad F;Karimi N;Keshavarz. “The Effect of Kinesio Taping Technique on Trigger Points of the Piriformis Muscle.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 8 Feb. 2016, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27814861/.

Ro, Tae Hoon, and Lance Edmonds. “Diagnosis and Management of Piriformis Syndrome: A Rare Anatomic Variant Analyzed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.” Journal of Clinical Imaging Science, Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd, 21 Feb. 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5843966/.

Travell, J. G., et al. Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual: Vol. 2:the Lower Extremities. Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Disclaimer

Sciatica Pain & The Gluteus Minimus Muscles

Sciatica Pain & The Gluteus Minimus Muscles

Introduction

The buttock and the lower back have a casual relationship to the body, as the lower back has various muscles and nerves surrounding the spinal column. In contrast, the buttock region has multiple muscles and the sciatic nerve to keep the body upright. The sciatic nerve travels from the lumbar region of the spine across the gluteus muscles and down to the legs. The gluteus muscles include the Maximus, medius, and minimus, and they work with the sciatic nerve regarding good posture. When normal or traumatic factors begin to affect the body, like sciatica or poor posture, it can lead to developing trigger points associated with the gluteus minimus affecting the sciatic nerve. Today’s article examines the gluteus minimus, how trigger points mimic sciatic pain on the gluteus minimus, and various treatments to relieve sciatic nerve pain. We refer patients to certified providers who incorporate multiple methods in the lower body extremities, like sciatic pain treatments related to trigger points, to aid individuals dealing with pain symptoms along the gluteus medius muscles associated with sciatica. We encourage and appreciate patients by referring them to associated medical providers based on their diagnosis, especially when it is appropriate. We understand that education is an excellent solution to asking our providers complex questions at the patient’s request. Dr. Jimenez, D.C., utilizes this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

exercises-for-neck-and-shoulder-pain-from-myofascial-trigger-points-by-dr-andrea-furlan-md-phd_63543ea0

What Is The Gluteus Minimus?

 

Have you been experiencing radiating pain traveling down to your leg? Do you have difficulty walking or sitting down? Do you feel tenderness or referred pain near your buttock region? Some of the issues correlate with trigger points affecting the gluteus minimus, causing pain in the sciatic nerve. As the smallest muscle in the gluteal region of the buttock, the gluteus minimus shares similar characteristics to the gluteus medius while being located beneath the medius muscle. One of the primary functions of the gluteus minimus is that it predominantly acts as a hip stabilizer and abductor. The nerves from the gluteal muscles include the sciatic nerve, which is on top of the gluteus muscles and the other nerves help supply the muscles to function in the posterior region of the body. Studies reveal that the structural integrity of the gluteus minimus muscles is the key to the lateral hip muscle, which contributes to pelvic stability and lower extremity function. However, when issues affect the gluteal muscles’ posterior region could trigger point pain mimicking sciatica.

 

How Trigger Points Mimic Sciatic Pain On The Gluteus Minimus?

When the lower body extremities begin to suffer from multiple issues that cause the individual to have mobility dysfunction, various factors could correlate to the dysfunction. When the gluteus minimus muscles have been overused or been through a traumatic experience, they can develop trigger points along the muscle fibers and even cause nerve entrapment along the sciatic nerve. Trigger points along the gluteus minimus can mimic sciatic nerve pain down to the back or even the side of the legs that causes excruciating and deep pain in the posterior region. Studies reveal that pain in the buttock region is a deep gluteal syndrome caused by non-discogenic pain that causes sciatic nerve entrapment.

 

 

The book, “Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction,” written by Dr. Janet G. Travell, M.D., states that many patients with active trigger points located in their gluteus minimus would complain about hip pain that could cause them to limp-walk when they are going to places. The pain caused by the active trigger points can make it difficult to stand up from a seated position due to the painful movements. The associated pain that the trigger points are causing to the gluteus minimus can be constant and excruciating; even small stretches can not alleviate the pain. The book also mentioned that trigger points could cause referred pain to the gluteus minimus that can cause various somato-visceral issues to the hips, legs, and knees if the pain worsens.


Sciatic Type Pain: Gluteus Minimus Trigger Points- Video

Are you dealing with pain in your hips, low back, and legs? Do you find it difficult to walk or stand up constantly? Or are you experiencing sciatic nerve pain that is radiating down your leg? All these pain-like symptoms are associated with trigger points along the gluteus minimus affecting the sciatic nerve. The gluteus minimus is the smallest of the gluteal muscles with the same function as the gluteus medius and predominately acts as the hip’s stabilizer and abductor. When the gluteus minimus muscles have been overused from traumatic events or normal factors, they can develop trigger points in the muscle fibers, entrap the sciatic nerve and irritate the nerve causing sciatica. The video above explain where the gluteus minimus is located and pinpoints where the trigger points are in the muscle fibers. Trigger points along the gluteus minimus can mimic sciatica by causing referred pain to travel down the leg. This can cause the individual to be unable to walk or even stand up due to the excruciating pain that they are in. Luckily, trigger points are treatable even though they are tricky to diagnose.


Various Treatments To Release Sciatic Nerve Pain

 

Even though trigger points along the gluteus minimus are tricky to diagnose, they are treatable through various treatments to alleviate the pain that the person is experiencing and can reduce sciatic nerve pain from causing more issues in the legs. Studies reveal that the effectiveness of active soft tissue release and trigger point block treatments combined can release entrapped nerves from the gluteus minimus and reduce low back and sciatic pain from the lower extremities. Now the treatments alone can only do so much to the individual, as many doctors tell their patients to take corrective actions or techniques to reduce the chances of trigger points from forming again on the gluteus minimus. Techniques like glute stretches, ischemic compressions, or using a foam roller can break the myofascial triggers from the gluteus minimus muscles and reduce the pain in the glutes and legs. This will help bring mobility back to the lower extremities.

 

Conclusion

As the smallest muscle in the body’s gluteal region, the gluteus minimus is the lower body’s predominant hip stabilizer and abductor. The gluteus minimus contributes to pelvic stability and lower extremity functionality that can be overused and can develop trigger points associated with sciatica. Trigger points along the gluteus minimus can cause referred pain to the legs and lower back while mimicking sciatic nerve pain. Thankfully various treatments and techniques can help reduce the chances of trigger points forming along the gluteus minimus and release nerve entrapment from the aggravated muscles pressing on the sciatic nerve, bringing back lower extremity mobility to the body.

 

References

Greco, Anthony J, and Renato C Vilella. “Anatomy, Bony Pelvis and Lower Limb, Gluteus Minimus Muscle.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 29 May 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK556144/.

Kameda, Masahiro, and Hideyuki Tanimae. “Effectiveness of Active Soft Tissue Release and Trigger Point Block for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back and Leg Pain of Predominantly Gluteus Medius Origin: A Report of 115 Cases.” Journal of Physical Therapy Science, The Society of Physical Therapy Science, Feb. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6382483/.

Martin, Hal David, et al. “Deep Gluteal Syndrome.” Journal of Hip Preservation Surgery, Oxford University Press, July 2015, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4718497/.

Travell, J. G., et al. Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual: Vol. 2:the Lower Extremities. Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Whiler, Lisa, et al. “Gluteus Medius and Minimus Muscle Structure, Strength, and Function in Healthy Adults: Brief Report.” Physiotherapy Canada. Physiotherapie Canada, University of Toronto Press, 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5963550/.

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Breathing Back Discomfort Causes: Back Clinic

Breathing Back Discomfort Causes: Back Clinic

Back discomfort symptoms include stiffness, spasms, tenderness, and headaches often caused by unhealthy posture and overuse muscle strain. Breathing back discomfort can be caused by injuries to the spinal musculoskeletal system, conditions and/or disease in the back, lungs, or heart, and other conditions unrelated to the back. When taking a breath, the intercostal muscles surrounding the rib cage contract, expanding the chest and allowing the lungs to fill with air. These muscles directly affect the spine, which is why back issues can present when breathing. Chiropractic care, decompression, and massage therapy, combined with a functional medicine approach, can realign the spine, release tight muscles, and restore function.Breathing Back Discomfort Causes Chiropractor

Breathing Back Discomfort

A problem in the back could be a root cause for discomfort and back problems while breathing.

Spinal Conditions

Scoliosis

  • Scoliosis causes the spine to curve sideways, either in one direction, creating a C shape, or generating an S shape in two directions.
  • The curvature can be so minimal that it cannot be seen or so severe that it can be life-threatening. Most scoliosis cases fall in between.
  • Taking deep breaths can cause discomfort and pain because the spine curvature puts extra strain on certain muscles meant to support the body’s weight in tandem with other muscles that have limited function or are no longer functioning.
  • The condition normally begins in adolescence but can start later in life.

Scoliosis treatment varies depending on the severity.

Monitor

  • A spinal physician will monitor the individual for mild curvature, as sometimes the process stops before it becomes serious. This is known as the wait-and-see, what-happens approach.

Activity, Chiropractic, and Physical Therapy

  • Yoga can stop and even reverse the progression.
  • Chiropractic care and physical therapy can help alleviate symptoms.

Bracing

  • Bracing can be effective at stopping the progression.

Surgery

  • For severe cases, surgery may be necessary.
  • In this case, spinal fusion is the most common surgical procedure for this condition.
  • Newer procedures like vertebral body tethering and ApiFix have been approved and could be an option.

Kyphosis

Kyphosis is another curve in the back that is supposed to be there.

  • Instead of curving like scoliosis, kyphosis causes a curve forward in the thoracic spine/upper back.
  • Problems arise when the curve is too pronounced.
  • This curve can come from unhealthy posture, Scheuermann’s disease, or being born with it.
  • Kyphosis causes breathing back discomfort by straining the muscles in the upper back, which are used for each breath.
  • Treatment often involves chiropractic and/or physical therapy to restore proper curvature and reduce inflammation.
  • A back brace could be prescribed if discomfort and pain continue.
  • Spinal fusion could be recommended for severe cases.

Lungs

The lungs and the spine are close to each other, which is why back discomfort and problems with breathing are connected.

Pneumonia

  • Pneumonia is an infection in the lungs that causes the tiny sacks known as alveoli to fill with fluid.
  • This is where the body takes oxygen from the inhaled air to the bloodstream.
  • The infection causes inflammation and discomfort symptoms in and around the chest and back while taking deep breaths.

Lung Cancer

  • Lung cancer can cause back issues and pain.
  • Frequently coughing causes the muscles around the ribs and back to become overused and strained from the jerking and heaving.
  • The strained muscles cause discomfort and pain when taking a breath.
  • Tumors can push on sensitive nerves in the back, causing inflammation and pain.

Pleurisy

  • There is a thin layer of protective tissue surrounding the lungs called pleura.
  • Pleurisy describes the layer becoming infected and/or inflamed, which causes discomfort symptoms in the back when breathing.
  • Pleurisy can be caused by injury, infection, or cancer.
  • Individuals with autoimmune disorders are more at risk of developing the condition.

Pneumothorax

  • Pneumothorax describes a full or partial lung collapse, usually on one side.
  • The lung can collapse as a result of severe illness or injury.
  • The lung collapses because air gets between the pleura and the lung and not allowing the lung to expand.
  • Pain with breathing is a common indicator of pneumothorax.
  • Individuals with this condition also experience severe shortness of breath and chest pain on one side.

Pulmonary Embolism

  • A pulmonary embolism occurs when a blood clot gets stuck in an artery, blocking blood flow to part of the lung.
  • The lungs will display signs of distress through back pain when trying to take a deep breath.
  • This is a life-threatening condition that causes chest pain, coughing up blood, a heart rate over 100 beats per minute, dizziness or leg swelling, and painful breathing; get to an emergency room immediately.

Heart

Heart Attack

  • The nerves associated with pain in the muscles and bones differ from those surrounding the organs, including the heart.
  • However, a heart attack can cause back pain as the nerves of the heart travel along the same path as spinal nerves, specifically in the upper back.
  • The brain can misinterpret pain signals from the same roots that supply peripheral nerves in the chest, arm, jaw, and back.
  • Because they share nerve pathways, the upper back can present with pain during a heart attack.

Aortic Dissection

  • The largest artery in the body is called the aorta.
  • It comes off the top of the heart and then drops to supply blood to the rest of the body.
  • Sometimes, the vessel can get a small tear in the chest area, which grows from the blood circulation pressure.
  • Aortic dissection can cause intense back pain while breathing.

Chiropractic care, decompression, and massage therapy combined with functional medicine can help realign the spine, stretch and loosen the overused and strained muscles, and provide postural training and nutritional planning to help alleviate symptoms and restore function.


Deep Breathing Back Pain


References

Costumbrado J, Ghassemzadeh S. Spontaneous Pneumothorax. [Updated 2022 Jul 25]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459302/

Floman, Y., Burnei, G., Gavriliu, S. et al. Surgical management of moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with ApiFix®: a short peri- apical fixation followed by post-operative curve reduction with exercises. Scoliosis 10, 4 (2015). doi.org/10.1186/s13013-015-0028-9

Hunter MP, Regunath H. Pleurisy. [Updated 2022 Jul 4]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK558958/

www.lung.org/lung-health-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/pneumothorax/symptoms-diagnosis-treatment

www.lung.org/lung-health-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/pulmonary-embolism/treating-and-managing

Mansfield JT, Bennett M. Scheuermann Disease. [Updated 2022 Aug 21]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499966/

Raitio A, Syvänen J, Helenius I. Vertebral Body Tethering: Indications, Surgical Technique, and a Systematic Review of Published Results. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(9):2576. doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092576

Lumbago Pain & Gluteus Medius Trigger Pain

Lumbago Pain & Gluteus Medius Trigger Pain

Introduction

Many individuals utilize the lower half of their bodies to go to different places and use the various surrounding muscles that provide stability on the hips and low back while supporting the upper body’s weight. Along the lower back is the buttock region, where the gluteal muscles help stabilize the pelvis, extend the hips, and rotate the thighs. The gluteal muscles also help shape and support the spine and have an erect posture in the body. One of the gluteal muscles that support the lower body is the gluteus medius, which can succumb to injuries and strain when overused or strained. This leads to developing trigger points that can cause various issues in the lower extremities and lead to corresponding chronic conditions. Today’s article focuses on the gluteus medius muscles, how the lumbago is associated with gluteus medius trigger pain, and various techniques to manage trigger points along the gluteus medius muscle. We refer patients to certified providers who incorporate multiple methods in the lower body extremities, like butt and low back pain treatments related to trigger points, to aid individuals dealing with pain symptoms along the gluteus medius muscles near and surrounding the body’s lower extremities. We encourage and appreciate patients by referring them to associated medical providers based on their diagnosis, especially when it is appropriate. We understand that education is an excellent solution to asking our providers complex questions at the patient’s request. Dr. Jimenez, D.C., utilizes this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

trigger-point-anatomy-levator-scapulae

What Is The Gluteus Medius?

 

Have you been experiencing pain near your buttock and lower back? Have you been feeling unstable when you are walking? What about feeling pain in your tailbone that makes it unbearable to sit down? Many of these issues are associated with referred pain caused by trigger points affecting the gluteus medius. As part of the gluteal muscle region, the gluteus medius lies between the gluteus maximus and minimus is a flat, triangular muscle and is the primary hip abductor. The gluteus medius and minimus work together for internal rotation for the thighs and lateral rotation for the knees when they are extended. The gluteus medius muscles also help stabilize the pelvis, while the trunk maintains an upright position when the legs are in motion. Studies reveal that the gluteus medius is a key lateral hip muscle that correlates with muscle function with other muscle groups like the quadriceps and abdominal muscles. When injuries or not activating the gluteal muscles often, various muscle issues can cause problems to the gluteus medius muscles. 

 

Lumbago Associated With Gluteus Medius Trigger Pain

Dysfunction in the hips can lead to various issues that can either be acute or chronic, depending on how severely the muscles have been overused or injured. Studies reveal that low back pain has been identified as the leading contributor to disability and when there is dysfunction in the lumbopelvic-hip complex, causing a reduction in gluteus medius strength. When the gluteus medius muscles have become overused or injured through trauma, it can develop trigger points on the muscle causing low back pain issues. When trigger points affect the gluteus medius, additional studies reveal that latent trigger points along the gluteus medius muscles may cause joint movement limitation while causing overload by affecting muscle activation from the hips.

 

 

According to Dr. Janet G. Travell, M.D.’s book, “Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual,” patients with active trigger points along their gluteus medius complain of pain when they are doing normal actions like walking or sitting. The pressure from the trigger points along the gluteus medius causes the individual to be in a slumped position, causing them to be uncomfortable. This causes instability in the hips and lower body extremities, making many people miserable. The book also explains that the referred pain patterns caused by gluteus medius trigger points can overlap other chronic conditions like sacroiliac joint dysfunction, low back pain, and inflammation of the subgluteus medius bursa.

 


Trigger Point Of The Week: Gluteus Medius- Video

Have you been dealing with hip pain? Do you feel uncomfortable pain when walking or sitting down? Or Do you feel muscle stiffness or tenderness near your tailbone constantly? If you have been experiencing these painful symptoms constantly in your lower back or your hips, it could be due to your gluteus medius muscles being affected by trigger points. The video above overviews the gluteus medius location and how trigger points or myofascial pain syndrome causes referred pain to the lower back and hips. When trigger points affect the gluteus medius, the referred pain can overlap and correlate to low back and hip pain, thus causing various issues to the muscles surrounding the low back and buttock region. Regarding trigger points affecting the gluteus medius, they can be treatable through multiple techniques specific to the low back, buttocks, and hips.


Various Techniques For Managing Trigger Pain Along The Gluteus Medius

 

When issues of low back or hip pain begin to cause a problem in the lower extremities, the gluteus muscles can invoke pain-like symptoms in the affected muscle regions, thus developing trigger points. Even though trigger points are tricky to diagnose, they can be treated with various techniques that many people can incorporate into their daily lives. Exercises like resistance training on the gluteus medius can help improve hip abductor functionality and increase the strength of the gluteus medius. To manage trigger points along the gluteus medius, many people must do these corrective actions to reduce the pain that they may be causing to their glutes. When people are putting on pants, it is best to sit down and then put on their pants to prevent muscle strain on their hips and gluteus medius. Another corrective action is to move around after sitting down for a prolonged period to avoid trigger pain from developing. These corrective actions and techniques can help strengthen the lower body extremities and improve hip mobility. 

 

Conclusion

As part of the gluteal muscle region, the gluteus medius lies between the gluteus maximus and minimus by being a primary hip abductor. The gluteus medius helps with pelvic stabilization and helps the trunk maintain an upright position when the legs are in motion. When normal or traumatic factors affect the gluteus medius, it can develop trigger points on the muscle fibers, causing referred pain to the hips and lower back. Trigger points along the gluteus medius are manageable through various techniques that people can use to prevent hip and low back issues. These techniques can minimize the trigger points and strengthen the gluteus medius muscles in the glutes.

 

References

Bagcier, Fatih, et al. “The Relationship between Gluteus Medius Latent Trigger Point and Muscle Strength in Healthy Subjects.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2022, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35248262/.

Sadler, Sean, et al. “Gluteus Medius Muscle Function in People with and without Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review.” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, BioMed Central, 22 Oct. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6805550/.

Shah, Aashin, and Bruno Bordoni. “Anatomy, Bony Pelvis and Lower Limb, Gluteus Medius Muscle.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 25 Jan. 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557509/.

Stastny, Petr, et al. “Strengthening the Gluteus Medius Using Various Bodyweight and Resistance Exercises.” Strength and Conditioning Journal, Strength and Conditioning Journal, June 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4890828/.

Travell, J. G., et al. Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual: Vol. 2:the Lower Extremities. Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Whiler, Lisa, et al. “Gluteus Medius and Minimus Muscle Structure, Strength, and Function in Healthy Adults: Brief Report.” Physiotherapy Canada. Physiotherapie Canada, University of Toronto Press, 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5963550/.

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Experiencing Pain In Your Gluteus Max? Could Be Trigger Points

Experiencing Pain In Your Gluteus Max? Could Be Trigger Points

Introduction

The body’s lower extremities have various muscles that allow the legs and feet to move around from one location to another. The different muscles that make up the lower extremities of the body help stabilize the hips and allow mobility to the legs. The legs and hip muscles have a mutual relationship with one body muscle that helps the lower body, and it’s the glutes, specifically the gluteus maximus. Many individuals must realize that the glutes must be activated when working out. When the glutes are not activated, it can lead to the rest of the lower extremities, like the lower back, hips, and knees, taking most of the loaded weight on the body. This leads to the development of trigger points associated with butt pain along the gluteus maximus, causing referred pain down the legs. Today’s article looks at the gluteus maximus muscles, how trigger points are associated with butt pain, and relieving pain is associated with trigger points along the gluteus maximus. We refer patients to certified providers who incorporate multiple techniques in the lower body extremities, like butt pain treatments related to trigger points, to aid individuals dealing with pain symptoms along the gluteus maximus muscles near and surrounding the body’s lower extremities. We encourage and appreciate patients by referring them to our associated medical providers based on their diagnosis, especially when it is appropriate. We understand that education is an excellent solution to asking our providers complex questions at the patient’s request. Dr. Jimenez, D.C., utilizes this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

trigger-point-anatomy-levator-scapulae

What Is The Gluteus Maximus?

 

Have you been experiencing pain in your hips, low back, and knees? Are you uncomfortable when you are trying to sit down? Or are you experiencing sciatic pain-like symptoms running from your buttock to your leg? These issues affecting the body’s lower extremities may correlate with trigger points along the gluteus maximus in the buttock. The gluteus maximus is the largest gluteus muscle that makes up the shape and form of the buttock and hip areas of the body. The gluteus maximus can come in different sizes depending on the individual’s body type. This large muscle plays a prominent role in the body as it helps maintain an erect posture for the upper body. Studies reveal that the gluteus maximus is one of the primary hip extensors, and some of its functions include extending and externally rotating the thighs. The gluteus maximus, when trained properly through exercise, can increase in size and strength while supporting the upper body. However, only a few people realize that when their gluteus maximus muscles are not properly trained, it can lead to various issues that can cause trigger points to form along the gluteus maximus.

 

Trigger Points Associated With Butt Pain

 

As mentioned earlier, when individuals don’t properly strengthen their gluteus maximus through exercises, it can lead to unwanted pain symptoms affecting the lower back, hips, and knees in the lower body. When the gluteus maximus muscles are not fully activated to their full potential, they can develop into trigger points associated with butt pain. Studies reveal that trigger points or myofascial pain syndrome associated with the gluteus maximus can affect the entry point of the inferior gluteal nerve, causing pain and a limited range of motion to the joints. Dr. Janet G. Travell, M.D., who wrote “Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction,” mentioned that the symptoms caused by active trigger points could make the individual uncomfortable and cause a cramping sensation to the gluteus maximus. At the same time, trigger points along the gluteus maximus can correlate with referred pain that can entrap the sciatic nerve causing sciatica to affect the legs. When this happens, many other issues can pop up and affect the lower extremities, mimicking low back pain.

 


How To Release Trigger Points On The Gluteus Maximus-Video

Are you experiencing a cramping sensation in your buttock? What about feeling an electric sense running down your leg? Or are you dealing with low back pain? Many of these issues are associated with trigger points affecting the gluteus maximus, causing butt pain. The gluteus maximus is a large, superficial muscle that helps support the hips and ensures that the upper body has an erect posture. When issues affect the gluteus maximus, it can lead to unwanted pain in the lower back, hips, and knees, causing the individual to be in constant pain. This leads to the development of trigger points along the gluteus maximus, thus mimicking sciatica. The video above demonstrates where the trigger points are located in the gluteus maximus and how they can potentially overlap to cause sciatica nerve pain. The video also shows how to use various techniques to relieve the pain from the trigger points and help release the trapped muscle from causing additional pain in the lower body.


Relieving Pain Associated With Trigger Points Along The Gluteus Maximus

 

Since the gluteus maximus is a large important muscle, it is important to strengthen the glutes to prevent low back pain. When it comes to relieving pain associated with trigger points along the gluteus maximus, there are various techniques that many people can utilize to release the tension from the gluteus maximus and the rest of the lower body. Various glute stretches can help elongate the gluteus maximus muscle after a workout and reduce the chances of triggering points and referred pain re-occurring. Another technique that many people should do is to bend at the knees when lifting heavy objects to reduce overload on the lower back and cause more issues on the gluteus maximus.

 

Conclusion

The gluteus maximus is a large superficial muscle with a very important function in the body. This muscle helps with extending and externally rotating the thighs and helps keep the posture erect for the upper back. However, the gluteus maximus muscles are not properly trained and can lead to unwanted issues that cause referred pain to the hips, low back, and knees that correlate with triggering points. Luckily though, through proper training and stretching, the lower body can prevent the gluteus maximus from developing trigger points and help improve a person’s posture.

 

References

Akamatsu, Flavia Emi, et al. “Anatomical Basis of the Myofascial Trigger Points of the Gluteus Maximus Muscle.” BioMed Research International, Hindawi, 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5733974/.

Elzanie, Adel, and Judith Borger. “Anatomy, Bony Pelvis and Lower Limb, Gluteus Maximus Muscle.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 28 Mar. 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538193/.

Neto, Walter Krause, et al. “Gluteus Maximus Activation during Common Strength and Hypertrophy Exercises: A Systematic Review.” Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, Uludag University, 24 Feb. 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039033/.

Travell, J. G., et al. Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual: Vol. 2:the Lower Extremities. Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

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Thigh & Low Back Pain Caused By Trigger Points

Thigh & Low Back Pain Caused By Trigger Points

Introduction

The posterior section of the lower half of the body consists of the hipslow back, pelvis, legs, and feet, which provide stability to the body while supporting the upper body’s weight. The various muscles surround the lower extremities and make different motions for mobility and functionality by contracting and retracting when the legs and hips are in motion. The various muscles that provide stability to the hips and the legs are the iliopsoas muscles. When normal age or incidents affect the lower body extremities, it can correlate to the development of trigger point pain. Today’s article examines the iliopsoas muscles, how referred trigger pain affects the thighs and low back, and treating trigger point pain on the thighs and low back. We refer patients to certified providers who incorporate multiple techniques in the low back and thigh pain therapies related to trigger points to aid individuals dealing with pain symptoms along the iliopsoas muscle in the lower back, thigh, and near the pelvis. We encourage and appreciate patients by referring them to our associated medical providers based on their diagnosis, especially when it is appropriate. We understand that education is an excellent solution to asking our providers complex questions at the patient’s request. Dr. Jimenez, D.C., utilizes this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

trigger-point-week-spelenius-cervicis

What Is The Iliopsoas Muscle?

Have you been dealing with muscle cramps in your thighs? What about feeling muscle stiffness in your lower back when you are stretching? Or do you feel your thigh muscles become heavy after a workout? Many of these issues correlate with the iliopsoas muscle becoming overused and developing trigger points, thus affecting the thighs and lower back. In the lower body extremities, the muscles that help provide stability to the hips are the iliopsoas muscles. The iliopsoas muscles consist of three muscles: iliacus, psoas major, and psoas minor, which can work individually or as a unit. When working individually, the iliacus muscle provides stability to the pelvis, the psoas major muscle helps stabilize the lumbar spine when a person is sitting, and the psoas minor helps with flexion of the trunk and stretch the iliac fascia. As a unit, however, these muscles work together to become the primary flexors of the thighs and allow hip flexion. 

 

 

Studies reveal that the iliopsoas is a deep muscle group that anatomically connects the spine to the body’s lower limbs. The iliopsoas muscles have an important function in the body’s lower limbs as primary hip flexors for daily activities, especially for those in sports. However, many impairments and pathologies affect the iliopsoas, which causes significant limitations and challenges since the symptoms mask the pain, causing individuals to think they are dealing with low back and hip pain. 

 

Referred Trigger Pain On The Thighs & Low Back

 

Since the iliopsoas muscles provide hip and thigh flexion to the lower body, many impairments and pathologies can affect this muscle group, causing issues in the hips, thighs, and even the lower back. These impairments can cause the iliopsoas muscles to be overused and overstretched, thus potentially developing trigger points along the iliopsoas muscles, causing referred pain on the thighs and low back. Studies reveal that when the iliopsoas muscle becomes overused or traumatic issues affect it, it can lead to problems in hip flexion and impairment in the lower extremities. In “Myofascial Pain and Disorders: The Trigger Point Manual,” written by Dr. Janet G. Travell, M.D., when trigger points begin to affect the iliopsoas muscles, it is known as the “Hidden Prankster” as normal factors like poor posture can overload the back causing trigger points to form not only on the iliopsoas muscles but the hamstrings, gluteal, thoracolumbar paraspinal, and posterior cervical muscles. Trigger points can mimic other chronic conditions that cause referred pain in different body areas. Trigger point pain in the iliopsoas muscle can lead to back pain, groin pain, snapping hips, and standing up difficult for the individual if it is not treated immediately.

 


Trigger Point Therapy: Iliopsoas Muscle- Video

Since the iliopsoas muscles provide hip and thigh flexion to the lower body, many impairments and pathologies can affect this muscle group, causing issues in the hips, thighs, and even the lower back. These impairments can cause the iliopsoas muscles to be overused and overstretched, thus potentially developing trigger points along the iliopsoas muscles, causing referred pain in the thighs and low back. Studies reveal that when the iliopsoas muscle becomes overused or traumatic issues affect it, it can lead to problems in hip flexion and impairment in the lower extremities. In “Myofascial Pain and Disorders: The Trigger Point Manual,” written by Dr. Janet G. Travell, M.D., when trigger points begin to affect the iliopsoas muscles, it is known as the “Hidden Prankster” as normal factors like poor posture can overload the back causing trigger points to form not only on the iliopsoas muscles but the hamstrings, gluteal, thoracolumbar paraspinal, and posterior cervical muscles. Trigger points can mimic other chronic conditions that cause referred pain in different body areas. Trigger point pain in the iliopsoas muscle can lead to back pain, groin pain, snapping hips, and standing up difficult for the individual if it is not treated immediately.


Treating Trigger Point Pain On The Thighs & Low Back

 

When trigger point pain begins to cause issues in the thighs and low back, the iliopsoas muscles will suffer from muscle spasms, stiffness, and difficulty standing. This is due to nerve entrapment from aggravated iliopsoas muscles caused by trigger points. However, various treatments can manage trigger point pain in the thighs, and low back through multiple techniques that pain specialists utilize can help relieve the pain symptoms from the iliopsoas muscle and manage trigger point pain. Studies reveal that combination treatments like soft tissue manipulation and trigger point therapy can help release the tiny nodules from the affected muscle and reduce the symptoms from re-occurring in the body. Other treatments, like correcting one’s posture, strength exercising, and even stretching, can help lengthen the iliopsoas muscles, stretch and strengthen the surrounding muscles, and prevent pain-like symptoms from affecting the thigh and low back muscles again. These various treatments can even improve hip mobility in the lower body extremities. 

 

Conclusion

In the lower body extremities, an iliopsoas is a group of deep muscles that provide stability to the lumbar spine and allow hip and thigh flexion. These groups of deep muscles can work individually or together to enable the individual to sit, stand and move around through physical activities; however, when the iliopsoas muscles become overused or suffer from a traumatic event, they can develop trigger points that can cause mobility issues on the thighs, hips, and lower back. Even though trigger points are difficult to diagnose, they are treatable through various treatments. Various treatments, like soft tissue massages, trigger point therapy, strength exercising, or stretching the iliopsoas muscles, can release trigger points from the affected body part and help bring back mobility function to the hips, thighs, and low back.

 

References

Bordoni, Bruno, and Matthew Varacallo. “Anatomy, Bony Pelvis and Lower Limb, Iliopsoas Muscle.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 2 Apr. 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK531508/.

Dydyk, Alexander M, and Amit Sapra. “Psoas Syndrome.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 12 June 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551701/.

Kameda, Masahiro, and Hideyuki Tanimae. “Effectiveness of Active Soft Tissue Release and Trigger Point Block for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back and Leg Pain of Predominantly Gluteus Medius Origin: A Report of 115 Cases.” Journal of Physical Therapy Science, The Society of Physical Therapy Science, Feb. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6382483/.

Lifshitz, Liran, et al. “Iliopsoas the Hidden Muscle: Anatomy, Diagnosis, and Treatment.” Current Sports Medicine Reports, U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2020, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32516195/.

Travell, J. G., et al. Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual: Vol. 2:the Lower Extremities. Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

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Myofascial Trigger Pain Affecting The Quadratus Lumborum

Myofascial Trigger Pain Affecting The Quadratus Lumborum

Introduction

The lower back works with the body’s lower extremities by stabilizing the hips and helping support the upper body’s weight. The lower back also has many functions when it comes to mobility. The lower back allows the person to bend, twist, and rotate the torso without any pain inflicted on the body. When normal factors or traumatic issues start to cause low back pain in the individual, the pain-like symptoms can correlate to the development of trigger points in the lower back muscles. Today’s article examines the quadratus lumborum, how myofascial trigger pain affects the low back, and how to manage myofascial trigger pain through various treatments. We refer patients to certified providers who incorporate multiple techniques in low back pain therapies related to trigger points to aid individuals dealing with pain symptoms along the quadratus lumborum in the lower back. We encourage and appreciate patients by referring them to our associated medical providers based on their diagnosis, especially when it is appropriate. We understand that education is an excellent solution to asking our providers complex questions at the patient’s request. Dr. Jimenez, D.C., utilizes this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

trigger-point-therapy-pectoralis-major_634aeb8b

What Is The Quadratus Lumborum?

 

Have you been experiencing low back pain? Do you feel relief when you stretch your lower back, only to have the pain return later? Do you feel tenderness or soreness on the sides? Many of these complaints are correlated with low back pain associated with trigger points along the quadratus lumborum. The quadratus lumborum is a flat, quadrangular-shaped muscle in the iliac crest and deep back. This muscle plays an important part in the thoracolumbar fascia that covers the posterior body area while involving the lower and upper parts of the limbs. According to “Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual,” written by Dr. Janet G. Travell, M.D., mentioned that the quadratus lumborum functions to control the side bending to the opposite side by lengthening contraction. Other studies reveal that various actions on the lumbar spine have been attributed to the quadratus lumborum. When the quadratus lumborum goes through these different actions, it can cause the muscles to become overused, or when injuries occur in the lower back, it can lead to various issues that can develop into overlapping conditions in the lower back.

 

Myofascial Trigger Pain Affecting The Low Back

 

When it comes to the lower back, many individuals worldwide experience some pain in their backs, and low back pain is common. Various factors cause low back pain from lifting heavy objects, over-exerting the sides with rapid turning, or even normal wear and tear of the body, which can cause lower back pain. When low back pain affects the quadratus lumborum, it can develop trigger points or myofascial trigger pain. Studies reveal that low back pain from the quadratus lumborum can present myofascial pain, causing the individual to have an acute pain episode in their lower back. Myofascial trigger pain is developed when the affected muscle has been overused and causes tiny knots to form along the muscle fibers. When myofascial trigger pain is in the quadratus lumborum, it becomes activated acutely through awkward movements or sudden trauma in the lower back, affecting the mobility of the lower back and the hips. Additional studies reveal that the prevalence of myofascial trigger pain in the quadratus lumborum, when being diagnosed, can display significantly less hip abduction strength. Low back pain associated with myofascial trigger pain can correlate with other chronic issues affecting the body’s lower extremities.

 


Trigger Point Release: Quadratus Lumborum- Video

Are you experiencing mobility issues in your hips? Do you feel symptoms of tenderness or stiffness in your lower back? Does it hurt when you are bending down to pick up an item? Most of these symptoms correlate with low back pain, potentially involving trigger points along the quadratus lumborum. Trigger points are formed when the muscle has been overused or been through a traumatic event like an auto accident, and since low back pain is common worldwide, it can mask other chronic conditions that overlap the pain. The video explains where the quadratus lumborum is located in the back, where the trigger points are marked, and how to manage the trigger points through manual manipulation while reducing pain away from the lower body. When myofascial trigger pain begins to wreak havoc on the affected muscles in the lower back. Various treatments applied to the lower back can help alleviate the symptoms caused by trigger points associated with the lower back along the quadratus lumborum.


Managing Myofascial Trigger Pain Through Various Treatments

 

Since low back pain is common worldwide and can potentially lead to the development of trigger points along the various lower back muscles, especially the quadratus lumborum, many individuals would utilize medication specifically for low back pain to reduce the pain symptoms; however, it only masks the pain caused by myofascial trigger pain. Studies reveal manual trigger-point therapy techniques that healthcare providers use to assess patients who are in pain from myofascial trigger pain. Many will go to a pain specialist to manage trigger points when the pain becomes too much for the individual. Another method that many people should utilize as part of their daily practice is doing gentle side stretching on the quadratus lumborum to loosen up the stiff muscles and reduce the chances of trigger points forming in the affected muscle in the future. 

 

Conclusion

The quadratus lumborum is a flat, quadrangular-shaped muscle in the iliac crest and deep back. This muscle helps with posterior mobility of the lower extremities and, when overused, can develop myofascial trigger pain associated with the low back. This can lead to various common back pain issues that affect how a person moves and become unstable when in motion. Fortunately, low back pain associated with myofascial trigger pain is treatable through various treatments that can reduce the pain and manage trigger points located in the low back. When people incorporate treatments to alleviate pain in their lower back, they will begin to experience relief and have their sense of purpose back in their lives.

 

References

Bordoni, Bruno, and Matthew Varacallo. “Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis, Quadratus Lumborum.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 18 July 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535407/.

de Franca, G G, and L J Levine. “The Quadratus Lumborum and Low Back Pain.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Feb. 11AD, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1826922/.

Grover, Casey, et al. “Atraumatic Back Pain Due to Quadratus Lumborum Spasm Treated by Physical Therapy with Manual Trigger Point Therapy in the Emergency Department.” Clinical Practice and Cases in Emergency Medicine, University of California Irvine, Department of Emergency Medicine Publishing Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 29 May 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6682240/.

Phillips, S, et al. “Anatomy and Biomechanics of Quadratus Lumborum.” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Feb. 2008, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18441751/.

Roach, Sean, et al. “Prevalence of Myofascial Trigger Points in the Hip in Patellofemoral Pain.” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Mar. 2013, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23127304/.

Travell, J. G., et al. Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual: Vol. 2:the Lower Extremities. Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

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Trigger Points Affecting The Lower Torso

Trigger Points Affecting The Lower Torso

Introduction

The body’s lower extremities have a very important role as it helps support the upper body’s weight and provide stability to the lower body. The lower half of the body consists of the lower abdominals, hipspelvic, and buttock regions, which have various muscles surrounding the lumbar and pelvic areas of the spine. These muscles help protect the lower vital organs and work with the central nervous system to utilize the sensory-motor function of the legs and feet. When normal factors like prolonged sitting or standing begin to affect the lower body, it can cause referred pain to travel down to the legs and push the lower extremities to develop symptoms associated with trigger points on the lower torso. Today’s article looks at the lower torso, how trigger points affect the lower torso, and therapeutic ways to manage trigger points in the lower torso. We refer patients to certified providers who incorporate various techniques in more inadequate body pain treatments related to trigger points to aid people suffering from pain-like symptoms along the lower torso muscles along the body’s lower extremities. We encourage and appreciate patients by referring them to our associated medical providers based on their diagnosis, especially when it is appropriate. We understand that education is an excellent solution to asking our providers complex questions at the patient’s request. Dr. Jimenez, D.C., utilizes this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

trigger-point-therapy-pectoralis-major_634aeb8b

What Is The Lower Torso?

 

Have you been feeling stiffness around your hips lately? Have you noticed that you are leaning forward constantly, causing strain on your lower back? Or have you been experiencing pain in one location in your lower half? When dealing with these issues in the lower half of the body, it could correlate with somato-visceral symptoms associated with trigger points in the lower torso. The lower torso of the human body, or the lower abdominals, is defined as the anterior region of the trunk between the thoracic diaphragm and serves as the cavity to house the digestive, urinary, endocrine, and parts of the reproductive system. The lower torso has various muscles and nerves that surround the lower back, the hips, the pelvis, and the buttock region of the body that stabilizes the legs when in motion and supports the upper body. The muscles in the lower torso also surround the lumbar and pelvic areas of the spine to protect the joints and vertebrae from becoming dysfunctional. When issues begin to rise and affect the lower torso, it can lead to overlapping problems affecting the body’s lower extremities.

 

How Do Trigger Points Affect The Lower Torso?

 

Some of the issues affecting the lower torso that most people don’t realize are that prolonged sitting or standing can cause problems to the legs, hips, pelvis, and feet. This causes the blood supply to pool into the legs and feet, thus causing swelling and muscle weakness in the lower torso muscles. Another issue is when the lower torso has been through a traumatic event that can cause the affected muscles to develop tiny nodules known as trigger points to cause problems in the lower back, hipspelvis, and buttock region of the body. Studies reveal that trigger points are often characterized by pain causing a limited range of motion in the joints while causing muscular contracture and mimicking other chronic conditions affecting the muscles. When trigger points affect the muscles in the lower torso, “Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction,” written by Dr. Janet Travell, M.D., pain associated with movement can cause tingling or electric sensations down to the lower extremities causing somato-visceral referred pain to the lower torso. Since the nerve roots from the spinal cord branch out to the various muscles and become irritated, causing referred pain to different areas of the lower extremities.

 


Trigger Point Therapy For The Abs- Video

Have you been dealing with hip mobility issues? What about experiencing low back pain after being in a hunch position for an extended period? Or have you been experiencing problems in your pelvic region? Many of these issues are correlated with trigger points associated with the lower torso. Trigger points or myofascial pain syndrome are caused when the affected muscles have been overused or been through a traumatic event that causes referred pain to different body locations. The video explains where trigger points are located in the lower torso, especially in the abdomen and how to release them through palpations and massage. These techniques can help reduce the pain symptoms that affect the lower torso and manage myofascial pain from developing in the future.


Therapeutic Ways To Manage Trigger Points In The Lower Torso

 

Pain specialists like chiropractors and massage therapists will use various techniques to reduce the pain and alleviate the trigger points from the affected muscles. Many often go to a pain specialist who deals with trigger points through recommendations by their primary doctor. They will go through an examination process and explain to the pain specialist where the pain is located. Afterward, they will devise a treatment plan with the patient’s primary doctor, allowing them to follow a routine to prevent the pain from returning. Various techniques like stretching the abdominals, exercising, and resting can manage trigger points from returning to the affected muscles and even help bring muscle strength back to the body.

 

Conclusion

The lower torso consists of the hips, lower back, pelvis, and buttock region while protecting the body’s vital organs. The lower torso helps stabilize, the lower body extremities and supports the upper body’s weight. When normal issues like prolonged sitting or standing start to cause muscle strain to the lower torso region, it can develop trigger points to cause various problems to that region and cause mobility issues in the lower abdominal area. When the pain becomes unbearable, many individuals go to a pain specialist to help manage the trigger points from affecting the lower torso region and bring back mobility function to the lower extremities.

 

References

Akamatsu, Flavia Emi, et al. “Anatomical Basis of the Myofascial Trigger Points of the Gluteus Maximus Muscle.” BioMed Research International, Hindawi, 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5733974/.

Travell, J. G., et al. Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual: Vol. 2:the Lower Extremities. Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Wade, Christian I, and Matthew J Streitz. “Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis, Abdomen – Statpearls – NCBI Bookshelf.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 25 July 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK553104/.

Disclaimer

Experiencing Abdominal Pain? Could Be Trigger Points

Experiencing Abdominal Pain? Could Be Trigger Points

Introduction

When it comes to the torso is surrounded by various muscles that help protect the vital organs known as the gut system and help with stabilizing the spinal column in the body. The abdominal muscles are essential to maintaining good posture and core support for many individuals. When normal activities or chronic issues begin to affect the body, the abdominal muscles can also be affected and can cause referred pain all around the torso area. When the abdominal muscles are dealing with referred pain, it can develop into trigger points that mask other chronic conditions affecting the torso and the thoracolumbar region. Today’s article looks at the abdominal muscles and their function, how trigger points are affecting the abdomen, and how various treatments help manage trigger points associated with abdominal pain. We refer patients to certified providers who provide different techniques in abdominal pain therapies related to trigger points to aid many suffering from pain-like symptoms along the abdominal muscles along the torso. We encourage patients by referring them to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it is appropriate. We designate that education is a great solution to asking our providers profound and complex questions at the patient’s request. Dr. Alex Jimenez, D.C., notes this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

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The Abdominal Muscles & Their Function

 

Do you have trouble moving around? Have you been dealing with muscle spasms along your abdomen? Does it hurt when you are sneezing, laughing, or coughing constantly? All these actions affecting your abdominal muscles might correlate with trigger points along the muscles and disrupt the torso area. The abdomen in the body has various muscles, a complex organ with many functions that contribute to a person’s quality of life. The abdominal muscles have many important parts, from supporting the trunk, allowing movement like twisting and turning, and holding the organs in the gut system in place through internal abdominal pressure regulation. The abdominal muscles have five main muscles that work together with the back muscles to keep body stability. They are:

  • Pyramidalis
  • Rectus Abdominus
  • External Obliques
  • Internal Obliques
  • Transversus Abdominis

Studies reveal that the abdominal muscles can help increase the stability of the lumbar region of the body from the vertebral columns by tending the thoracolumbar fascia and raising the intra-abdominal pressure. This allows the abdominal muscle to bend and flex in different positions without feeling pain. However, overusing the abdominal muscles can lead to unnecessary issues that can affect not only the torso but the surrounding muscles around the torso.

 

How Trigger Points Are Affecting The Abdomen

 

The book “Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction,” by Dr. Janet Travell, M.D., mentioned that abdominal symptoms are common and can cause diagnostic confusion for many people. Since the abdominal muscles can provide stability to the body’s trunk when a person overuses the abdominal muscles through various activities like quick and violent twisting of the mid-section, lifting heavy objects with the core instead of the legs, overdoing exercise regimes, or having a persistent cough, these various activities could potentially lead to the development of trigger points in the abdominal muscles causing pain in the abdomen and causing referred pain to the lower back. Studies reveal that trigger points along the abdominal muscles are developed through aggravating factors like prolonged sitting or standing can cause the abdominal muscles to become extremely tender and hyperirritable along the taut muscle bands. When trigger points affect the abdominal muscles, they can produce referred abdominal pain and visceral disorders (somato-visceral effects) that work closely together to mimic visceral diseases. This pertains to many individuals thinking something is wrong in their gut system, but their abdominal muscles are causing issues in their bodies.

 


Releasing Trigger Points In The Abdominal Muscles-Video

Have you been experiencing abdominal issues around your torso? Does it hurt when you laugh, cough, or sneeze? Do you feel muscle stiffness or tenderness along your abdominals? If you have been dealing with these symptoms throughout your life, you could be experiencing abdominal pain associated with trigger points in your torso. Abdominal pain is common for many individuals and can vary from gut issues or muscle issues that various factors can cause in the torso. Abdominal issues can even cause confusion to doctors when they are diagnosing the issues that are affecting their patients. When various actions cause pain to the abdominals, it can develop referred pain associated with trigger points. Trigger points develop when the muscle has been overused, creating tiny nodules in the taut band. Trigger points can be tricky to pinpoint but are treatable. The video above shows where the trigger points are located in the abdominal muscles and how to release them from the affected abdominal muscles to provide relief and reduce the mimic effects of visceral-somatic pain.


Managing Trigger Points Associated With Abdominal Pain Through Various Treatments

 

When abdominal pain affects the muscles, the symptoms can develop trigger points. When this happens, it can lead to confusion and often misdiagnosed. All is not lost; there are ways to manage trigger points associated with abdominal pain through various treatments. Studies reveal that various therapies like dry needling combined with palpations can reduce trigger points from causing more referred pain issues in the abdomen. Other ways to prevent trigger points from developing in the future are through exercises that can help strengthen the abdominal muscles. Exercises like abdominal breathing, pelvic tilts, sit-ups, and even laughter can help strengthen weak abdominal muscles and positively affect the body. 

 

Conclusion

The torso has various muscles, known as abdominal muscles, that help protect the vital organs in the gut system, help stabilize the spinal column, and maintain good posture for many individuals. Various factors affecting the abdominal muscles can lead to a confusing diagnosis, as it could be an internal or external issue. When the abdominal muscles are affected by being overused through various activities, it can develop into trigger points in the muscles, causing visceral referred pain to the torso and cause muscle weakness. Luckily multiple treatments can help reduce the effects of trigger points associated with abdominal pain and can help strengthen the core of the body. This allows the individual to feel better and consider what not to do to their abdominals.

 

References

Balyan, Rohit, et al. “Abdominal Wall Myofascial Pain: Still an Unrecognized Clinical Entity.” The Korean Journal of Pain, The Korean Pain Society, Oct. 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5665744/.

Rajkannan, Pandurangan, and Rajagopalan Vijayaraghavan. “Dry Needling in Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain of Uncertain Origin.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2019, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30691770/.

Seeras, Kevin, et al. “Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis, Anterolateral Abdominal Wall.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 25 July 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK525975/.

Tesh, K M, et al. “The Abdominal Muscles and Vertebral Stability.” Spine, U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 1987, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2957802/.

Travell, J. G., et al. Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual: Vol. 1:Upper Half of Body. Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Disclaimer

An Overview Of Lumbago

An Overview Of Lumbago

Introduction

Many individuals don’t realize that the various muscles in their back help provide functionality to the body. The back muscles help move, bend, rotate, and help the individual stand up straight when they are out and about. The back muscles also help protect the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar sections of the spine and work together with the head, neck, shoulders, arms, and legs to provide mobility. When the body begins to wear down with age naturally, it can lead to back issues that can limit a person’s mobility, or normal activities can cause the back muscles to be overused and develop trigger points to invoke back pain or lumbago. Today’s article looks at the thoracolumbar paraspinal muscles in the back, how the lumbago is associated with trigger points, and treatments to relieve the lumbago in the thoracolumbar muscles. We refer patients to certified providers who provide different techniques in thoracic lumbar back pain therapies associated with trigger points to aid many suffering from pain-like symptoms along the thoracolumbar paraspinal muscles along the back, causing lumbago. We encourage patients by referring them to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it is appropriate. We designate that education is a great solution to asking our providers profound and complex questions at the patient’s request. Dr. Alex Jimenez, D.C., notes this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

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The Thoracolumbar Paraspinal Muscles In The Back

 

Have you been finding it difficult to walk even for a short period? Do you feel aches and soreness when getting out of bed? Are you constantly in pain when bending over to pick up items from the ground? These various actions that you are doing incorporate the thoracolumbar paraspinal muscle in the back, and when issues affect these muscles, it can lead to lumbago associated with trigger points. The thoracolumbar paraspinal in the back is a group of muscles closely surrounded by the thoracolumbar spine, where the thoracic region ends, and the lumbar region begins. The thoracolumbar paraspinal muscles in the back have a casual relationship with the body as it requires contribution from the systems requiring movement. Studies reveal that the thoracolumbar paraspinal muscles are modulated through communication with the three sub-systems, which include:

  • The passive system: vertebrae, discs, and ligaments
  • The active system: muscles and tendons
  • The control system: central nervous system and nerves

Each system provides muscular activities when a person is bending down to pick up an object or doing simple movements. However, when the muscles become overused, it can lead to various issues affecting the back and surrounding muscles.

 

Lumbago Associated With Trigger Points

 

Studies reveal that paraspinal muscle integrity plays a very critical role when it comes to the maintenance of spinal alignment in the back. When the thoracolumbar paraspinal muscles become overused from normal activities, it can affect the back by causing back pain symptoms or lumbago associated with trigger points. In Dr. Travell, M.D.’s book “Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction,” trigger points may be activated due to sudden movements or sustained muscular contraction over time that leads to the development of lumbago. Atrophy issues in the paraspinal muscles can contribute to lumbago associated with trigger points that cause deep referred pain in the thoracolumbar regions of the back. Active trigger points in the deep muscle group of the thoracolumbar paraspinal can impair movement between the vertebrae during flexion or side bending. 

 


An Overview Of Lumbago- Video

Lumbago or back pain is one of the most common issues that many individuals, from acute to chronic, depending on how severe the pain is inflicted on the back. Have you been feeling pain in your mid-lower back? Do you feel an electric shock when you run down your leg in a weird position? Or have you felt tenderness in the middle of your back? Experiencing these symptoms could indicate that the thoracolumbar paraspinal muscles are affected by trigger points associated with lumbago. The video explains what lumbago is, the symptoms, and various treatment options to relieve the pain and manage trigger points that are causing the thoracolumbar muscles issues in the back. Many individuals who suffer from lumbago don’t often realize that various factors can affect the surrounding muscles in the thoracolumbar region and mask other previous conditions from which they could suffer. Regarding managing lumbago associated with trigger points, various treatment options can help reduce the pain affecting the thoracolumbar paraspinal muscles while managing trigger points for progressing further in the back.


Treatments To Relieve Lumbago In The Thoracolumbar Muscles

 

Since lumbago or back pain is a common issue for many people, various treatments can reduce the pain-like symptoms in the thoracolumbar muscles and manage the associated trigger points. Some of the simplest treatments that many individuals can use are to correct how they are standing. Many individuals often lean on one side of their bodies which causes the thoracolumbar paraspinal muscles on the opposite sides to be overloaded. This causes spinal subluxation or misalignment to the thoracolumbar region. Another treatment that many people can incorporate into their daily lives is by going to a chiropractor for a spinal adjustment for the thoracolumbar spine. Studies reveal that chiropractic care combined with physical therapy can relieve the thoracolumbar back while reducing the pain symptoms associated with trigger points by loosening the stiff muscles and causing relief to the back. 

 

Conclusion

The back has various muscles known as the thoracolumbar paraspinal muscles that allow movement and mobility to the body. The back muscles help protect the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar sections of the spine while working with the rest of the body’s components to keep the body stable. When natural aging or actions affect the back muscles, it can lead to various pain issues that can activate trigger points causing lumbago or back pain. Fortunately, some treatments can help alleviate back pain in the thoracolumbar paraspinal muscles while managing trigger points to bring back mobility to the back.

 

References

Bell, Daniel J. “Paraspinal Muscles: Radiology Reference Article.” Radiopaedia Blog RSS, Radiopaedia.org, 10 July 2021, radiopaedia.org/articles/paraspinal-muscles?lang=us.

du Rose, Alister, and Alan Breen. “Relationships between Paraspinal Muscle Activity and Lumbar Inter-Vertebral Range of Motion.” Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), MDPI, 5 Jan. 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4934538/.

He, Kevin, et al. “The Implications of Paraspinal Muscle Atrophy in Low Back Pain, Thoracolumbar Pathology, and Clinical Outcomes after Spine Surgery: A Review of the Literature.” Global Spine Journal, SAGE Publications, Aug. 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7359686/.

Khodakarami, Nima. “Treatment of Patients with Low Back Pain: A Comparison of Physical Therapy and Chiropractic Manipulation.” Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), MDPI, 24 Feb. 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7151187/.

Travell, J. G., et al. Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual: Vol. 1:Upper Half of Body. Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Disclaimer

Residual Backache On The Serratus Posterior Inferior

Residual Backache On The Serratus Posterior Inferior

Introduction

As the “backbone” of the body, the thoracic region of the back has various muscles that help support the ribcage and protect the heart and lungs from injuries. The thoracic spine’s main function is providing respiration and maintaining good posture. However, various habits can cause issues to the muscles in the thoracic spine, which leads to upper back pain and the development of trigger points. One of the thoracic muscles affected by trigger points is the serratus posterior inferior muscle. Today’s article looks at the serratus posterior inferior muscle, how trigger points affect the thoracic region of the back, and how to manage thoracic back pain associated with trigger points. We refer patients to certified providers who provide different techniques in thoracic back pain therapies associated with trigger points to aid many suffering from pain-like symptoms along the serratus posterior inferior muscle along the back. We encourage patients by referring them to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it is appropriate. We designate that education is a great solution to asking our providers profound and complex questions at the patient’s request. Dr. Alex Jimenez, D.C., notes this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

trigger-points-extensor-digitorum_634b0d22

What Is The Serratus Posterior Inferior Muscle?

Have you felt aches and pain when bending down to pick something up? What about feeling tenderness near your lower back? Or have you experienced muscle stiffness when stretching? Many of these symptoms are associated with back pain that correlates to overusing the thoracic muscles, which includes the serratus inferior posterior muscles. The serratus posterior muscles (superior and inferior) are accessory breathing muscles as part of the extrinsic muscles. The serratus posterior inferior helps with the chest cavity’s expiration, while the superior help with inspiration. Some of the functionalities that the serratus posterior inferior provides are that in a bilateral action, the inferior works with the superior muscles to reduce the extension of the thoracic vertebrae.

 

 

In contrast, the unilateral action for the serratus posterior inferior muscle helps rotate the spine to the opposite sides. Studies reveal that based on the attachment of the serratus, the posterior inferior and superior are generally considered insignificant muscles. Since the serratus posterior muscles help aid respiration to the thoracic region, it can be succumbed to trigger points or myofascial pain syndrome that can affect the thoracic part of the back.

 

How Trigger Points Affect The Thoracic Region?

 

When the serratus posterior muscles in the thoracic region are affected by myofascial pain syndrome or trigger points, it correlates to the various activities the person has been doing that cause muscle strain along the serratus inferior posterior muscle. The book, “Myofascial Pain & Dysfunction” explains that when individuals feel a nagging ache in the lower thoracic region of the back, it correlates to residual backache associated with trigger points. Studies reveal that trigger points or myofascial pain syndrome are musculoskeletal pain disorder that affects one or multiple muscles in the body. Since back pain is common, trigger points can cause hyperirritability in the muscle’s taut band due to various factors that can cause strain on the affected muscle. When it comes to the serratus posterior inferior muscle developing active trigger points, it’s due to overload strain from combined movements like lifting, turning, and reaching for items that can also affect the surrounding muscles in the thoracic region of the back.

 


Trigger Point Of The Week: Serratus Posterior Inferior- Video

Have you been dealing with pain in your upper back in the thoracic region? Do you experience tenderness or soreness near your ribcage? Or have you felt a twinge of pain when turning your torso? Most of these symptoms are common signs that the thoracic region is affected by trigger points along the serratus posterior inferior muscle. The video explains where the serratus posterior inferior is located while pinpointing where the trigger points are located in the thoracic region of the back. Trigger points associated with thoracic back pain mimic other chronic conditions that can cause muscle tension and strain on the upper back. Studies reveal that latent and active trigger points affecting the upper thoracic area muscles can make many individuals feel more pain than they can tolerate. This can affect how a person functions and can make them feel inadequate. However, it is possible to incorporate a variety of treatments to reduce the pain and manage trigger points from progressing further in the thoracic region of the back.


Managing Thoracic Back Pain Associated With Trigger Points

 

Various treatments are available to reduce the pain affecting the thoracic region of the back and even manage trigger points associated with the serratus posterior inferior muscle. Many individuals often go to a chiropractor to relieve their back pain. Chiropractors utilize their hands and various techniques to manipulate the spine and can even pinpoint where the trigger points affect the multiple muscles in the thoracic region. Chiropractors even work with other pain specialists to devise a treatment procedure to reduce the symptoms while managing thoracic back pain associated with trigger points. Studies reveal that by when pain specialists like chiropractors begin identifying proper treatment strategies for managing thoracic back pain associated with trigger points, it might be able to reduce pain and improve function for many people dealing with thoracic back pain.

 

Conclusion

The thoracic region of the back has various muscles that help support the ribcage and protect vital organs, which include the heart and the lungs. One of the muscles in the thoracic region is the serratus posterior inferior muscle, an accessory breathing muscle that helps with the chest cavity expiration and helps reduce the extension of the thoracic vertebrae. When the inferior muscle becomes overused by various movements, it can develop trigger points along the inferior muscle, causing thoracic back pain. Trigger points along the serratus inferior posterior muscles can mimic other chronic conditions that can cause symptoms of muscle tension and strain on the upper back. Luckily, various treatments have been available to reduce pain symptoms and manage thoracic back pain associated with trigger points. These treatments can bring back mobility to the thoracic region of the back without the individual being in pain.

 

References

Chen, Chee Kean, and Abd Jalil Nizar. “Myofascial Pain Syndrome in Chronic Back Pain Patients.” The Korean Journal of Pain, The Korean Pain Society, June 2011, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3111556/.

Dor, Adi, et al. “Proximal Myofascial Pain in Patients with Distal Complex Regional Pain Syndrome of the Upper Limb.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2019, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31563368/.

Mitchell, Brittney, et al. “Anatomy, Back, Extrinsic Muscles.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 25 Aug. 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537216/.

Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo, et al. “Widespread Pressure Pain Sensitivity and Referred Pain from Trigger Points in Patients with Upper Thoracic Spine Pain.” Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.), U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 July 2019, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30821833/.

Travell, J. G., et al. Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual: Vol. 1:Upper Half of Body. Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Vilensky , J A, et al. “Serratus Posterior Muscles: Anatomy, Clinical Relevance, and Function.” Clinical Anatomy (New York, N.Y.), U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2001, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11424195/.

Disclaimer

It Could Be More Than Upper Back Pain

It Could Be More Than Upper Back Pain

Introduction

The upper back is part of the thoracic region of the spine, surrounded by various muscles that protect the thoracic joints and help assist with respiratory functionality for the lungs. The upper back muscles consist of the rhomboids and the trapezoid muscles that provide functionality to the scapula or shoulder blades. Other superficial muscles offer assistance to the thoracic spine. The serratus posterior muscle is one of the superficial muscles that helps the thoracic spine and, like all superficial muscles, can succumb to injuries that can lead to the development of overlapping referred pain symptoms known as trigger points. Today’s article focuses on the serratus posterior muscle function in the back, how trigger points are causing upper back pain, and various techniques to manage trigger points in the upper back. We refer patients to certified providers who are diverse in upper back pain therapies to aid many people suffering from myofascial pain syndrome or trigger points associated with the serratus posterior muscle along the upper back. We advised patients by referring them to our associated medical providers based on their examination when appropriate. We indicate that education is a great solution to asking our providers profound and complex questions at the patient’s request. Dr. Alex Jimenez, D.C., notes this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

how-to-treat-trigger-points-brachioradialis

The Serratus Posterior Muscle Function In The Back

 

Have you been dealing with constant upper back pain? Do you feel soreness at the base of your neck? Or are you having difficulty breathing? Most of the symptoms cause pain in the serratus posterior muscles that can lead to the development of myofascial pain syndrome or trigger points along the upper back. The serratus posterior has various roles in the upper back as it is not only part of the extrinsic muscles but also part of the accessory breathing muscle. The serratus posterior muscle helps with inspiration, which causes the chest cavity to expand as it is a superficial muscle attached to the ribs and is less commonly known. Studies show that the serratus posterior muscle is deep within the rhomboid muscles and is superficial. Even though this muscle is superficial when it has been overused through various activities, that can cause hypertrophy in the accessory respiratory muscles. Additional studies reveal that the serratus posterior superior muscle is considered clinically insignificant but has been impaired by myofascial pain syndrome or trigger points that can lead to upper back pain.

 

Trigger Points Causing Upper Back Pain

 

As stated earlier, the upper back is part of the thoracic region of the spine, and when various factors begin to affect the body, the back muscles tend to be involved. Studies reveal numerous sources of spinal pain in the thoracic spine. One is a myofascial pain syndrome affecting the serratus posterior muscles causing referred upper back pain. Myofascial pain syndrome or trigger points can be activated when the serratus posterior muscle is overloaded from thoracic respiratory issues like coughing due to pneumonia, asthma, or chronic emphysema. When respiratory problems affect the muscles in the thoracic region of the back, it leads to the development of trigger points, leading to overlapping issues like referred pain, motor dysfunction, and autonomic phenomena. According to Dr. Travell, M.D., in the upper back, trigger points can make the serratus posterior muscle cause overlapping risk profiles along the shoulder blades and have referred pain travel to the hands. This can make many individuals suffer from serious pain-like symptoms, causing them to be miserable.

 


Releasing Trigger Points Related Tension In The Upper Back-Video

Have you been dealing with respiratory issues causing you to be hunched over constantly? Do you feel soreness or tenderness at the base of your neck? Or are you suffering from upper back pain? These symptoms are associated with trigger points that are affecting the serratus posterior muscles causing upper back pain. Trigger points, or myofascial pain syndrome, is a musculoskeletal disorder that causes tenderness along the affected muscle that causes referred pain to the surrounding muscles in the body. Trigger points associated with the serratus posterior muscles can cause referred pain in the upper back and mimic various chronic conditions. Trigger point pain is difficult to diagnose but can be manageable with treatment. The video above gives examples of how to treat trigger points to relieve tension in the upper back.


Various Techniques To Manage Trigger Points In The Upper Back

 

When it comes to upper back pain, many individuals will go to pain specialists like massage therapists or chiropractors to relieve any issues affecting the upper back. These pain specialists utilize various techniques like stretching, spinal manipulation, massages, and ischemic compression to alleviate pain and manage trigger points from forming further in the affected muscle. Pain specialists like massage therapists or chiropractors are excellent for locating pain-like symptoms associated with trigger points. Even though treatment can help manage symptoms associated with trigger points, many people can still incorporate these techniques, like deep breathing or correcting their posture, to prevent the upper back muscles from becoming strained and causing more issues than before.

 

Conclusion

The serratus posterior muscles have various roles in the upper back region of the body. These superficial muscles are extrinsic and accessory breathing muscles that help expand the chest cavity. When multiple issues affect the upper back muscles, like strenuous activities or respiratory problems, it can develop trigger points along the serratus posterior muscles and invoke pain-like symptoms to travel down to the hand, causing mobility issues. Thankfully, various techniques that pain specialists like chiropractors and massage therapists use can help manage trigger points from escalating and can bring upper back mobility to the body once again.

 

References

Altafulla, Juan J, et al. “An Unusual Back Muscle Identified Bilaterally: Case Report.” Cureus, Cureus, 15 June 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6093753/.

Briggs, Andrew M, et al. “Thoracic Spine Pain in the General Population: Prevalence, Incidence and Associated Factors in Children, Adolescents and Adults. A Systematic Review.” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, BioMed Central, 29 June 2009, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2720379/.

Mitchell, Brittney, et al. “Anatomy, Back, Extrinsic Muscles.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 4 Aug. 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537216/.

Travell, J. G., et al. Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual: Vol. 1:Upper Half of Body. Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Vilensky, J A, et al. “Serratus Posterior Muscles: Anatomy, Clinical Relevance, and Function.” Clinical Anatomy (New York, N.Y.), U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2001, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11424195/.

Disclaimer

Superficial Backaches & Round Shoulders

Superficial Backaches & Round Shoulders

Introduction

Many individuals do not realize they are in pain until they begin to feel symptoms of stiffness or tenderness in certain areas of their body. Many people have two most common complaints: back and shoulder pain. The shoulder and the back have a casual relationship that stabilizes the upper body and protects the spine’s thoracic region. When injuries or ordinary factors affect not only the shoulders but the back, it can lead to symptoms of pain and stiffness along the muscles, causing the development of trigger points along the upper back and shoulder muscles. One of the muscles affected by trigger points is the rhomboid muscles located in the upper back behind the scapula (shoulder blades). Today’s article looks at the rhomboid muscle, how superficial backaches and round shoulders can affect the rhomboid muscle, and managing trigger points associated with the rhomboid muscle. We refer patients to certified providers specializing in back pain treatments to aid individuals suffering from trigger points associated with the upper back along the rhomboid muscles. We also guide our patients by referring them to our associated medical providers based on their examination when appropriate. We ensure that education is a great solution to asking our providers insightful questions. Dr. Jimenez DC observes this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

11_Shah Role of Central Sensitization-compressed

What Is The Rhomboid Muscle?

 

Do muscle stiffness in your shoulders seem to be causing you pain? Have you noticed that your shoulders seem more rounded than usual? What about the unexplainable upper backaches after being in a hunched position for a long period? Many individuals with these pain symptoms could be associated with the rhomboid muscles. The rhomboid muscles are a collective group of muscles important for upper limb movement and stability for the shoulder’s girdle and scapula. The rhomboid muscles consist of two separate muscles: the rhomboid minor and the rhomboid major, deep within the trapezius muscle and behind the scapula (shoulder blades). The functionality of the rhomboid is that they provide stability to the shoulder and when they are active, the upper arms move back and forth while walking. 

 

How Superficial Backaches & Round Shoulders Affect The Rhomboid

While the rhomboid muscles provide stability to the shoulders, they can succumb to pain like any muscles in different body sections. Ordinary factors like a bad sitting posture can cause the upper back and shoulder muscles to contract and strain. Studies reveal that the effects of bad sitting posture can lead to the development of a forwarding head posture with rounded shoulders, causing pain in the rhomboid muscles. When the shoulder muscles, like the rhomboid muscles, experience this sort of change over time, it can increase muscle tone and continuous stress in the neck and shoulders. To that point, it can lead to various symptoms like pain, numbness, loss of functionality in the upper limbs, and nerve root symptoms. Other issues like back pain can also be one of the symptoms that can lead to referred pain in the rhomboid muscles and can potentially lead to the development of trigger points along the shoulders and rhomboid muscles.

Other issues that can affect the rhomboid muscles are trigger points. Trigger points can be latent or active as they are tiny knots formed in the body’s muscle fibers. For the rhomboid muscles according to Dr. Janet G. Travell, M.D., when a person hears snapping and crunching noises during the movement of the shoulder blades, it may be due to the trigger points in the rhomboid muscles. Studies reveal that since trigger points can be either active or latent and elicit local referred pain, that can lead to muscle imbalance, weak and impaired motor function, and expose the joints to suboptimal loading. This means that trigger points in the rhomboid muscles can cause referred pain to the shoulder and mimic other chronic symptoms. 

 


Stretching The Rhomboid Muscle & Managing Trigger Points-Video

Do you hear any snapping or crunching noises when rotating your shoulders? What about muscle stiffness along your shoulders or upper back? Or do you feel muscle aches from being hunched over for a long time? These symptoms could potentially involve trigger points associated with the rhomboid muscles. The rhomboid muscles help stabilize the shoulders and provide movement to the arms. When people overuse their shoulder muscles, it can cause the surrounding muscles to develop trigger points and inflict pain-like symptoms on the shoulders and upper back. Thankfully, all is not lost, as various treatments are available to relieve shoulder and upper back pain associated with trigger points along the rhomboid muscles. The video above explains where the trigger points are located on the rhomboid muscles and how to stretch that muscle to relieve trigger points from causing referred pain to the shoulders.


Managing Trigger Points Associated With The Rhomboid Muscle

 

Since the rhomboid muscles can become stiff due to overuse and could develop trigger points to inflict pain along the upper back and shoulders, this can cause many symptoms associated with pain and make the individual feel hopeless. Thankfully, various treatments can help manage trigger point pain associated with the rhomboid muscles. Studies reveal that thoracic spinal manipulation can relieve pain pressure sensitivity of the rhomboid muscles. Chiropractors are excellent when finding trigger points along the musculoskeletal system by utilizing spinal manipulation on the thoracic spine to loosen up the stiff muscles along the shoulders and upper back. Another way to manage trigger points associated with the rhomboid muscle is to stretch the shoulder muscles after a hot shower. This allows the muscles to relax and prevent future trigger points from forming along the rhomboid muscles. 

 

Conclusion

The rhomboid muscles are a collective muscle group that has an important function in stabilizing the shoulder’s girdle and scapula (shoulder blades) while providing upper limb movement. The rhomboid muscles consist of two separate muscles: rhomboid minor and rhomboid major, which are behind the shoulder blades and deep within the trapezius muscles. When ordinary factors like poor posture or shoulder injuries affect the rhomboid muscles, it can develop trigger points that can cause stiffness in the rhomboid muscles. Various techniques can alleviate the referred pain along the shoulders, causing trigger points to develop along the rhomboid muscles. When these treatments are utilized on the rhomboid muscles, they can help prevent future shoulder issues.

 

References

Farrell, Connor, and John Kiel. “Anatomy, Back, Rhomboid Muscles.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 20 May 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534856/.

Haleema, Bibi, and Huma Riaz. “Effects of Thoracic Spine Manipulation on Pressure Pain Sensitivity of Rhomboid Muscle Active Trigger Points: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2021, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34410234/.

Ribeiro, Daniel Cury, et al. “The Prevalence of Myofascial Trigger Points in Neck and Shoulder-Related Disorders: A Systematic Review of the Literature.” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, BioMed Central, 25 July 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060458/.

Yoo, Won-Gyu. “Effects of Pulling Direction on Upper Trapezius and Rhomboid Muscle Activity.” Journal of Physical Therapy Science, The Society of Physical Therapy Science, June 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5468195/.

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Aqua Therapy For Low Back Pain

Aqua Therapy For Low Back Pain

Introduction

When it comes to the body, many factors can cause low back pain without a person knowing they encounter it. Simple actions like sitting, standing, and walking can be difficult or helpful, depending on the person’s actions. Since low back pain tends to vary from person to person and the possible factors that can cause low back pain make diagnosing a bit difficult. Fortunately, there are available treatments that can help manage low back pain symptoms and can help alleviate its associated symptoms in the body. Today’s article examines the causes and symptoms of low back pain, aqua therapy for low back pain, and how chiropractic care goes hand in hand with aqua therapy. We refer patients to certified providers specializing in musculoskeletal treatments and hydrotherapy to help many individuals with low back pain. We also guide our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is the solution to asking our providers insightful questions. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

Journal of Neuro Imaging

The Causes Of Low Back Pain

 

Have you been feeling aches along the sides of your back? Do you feel stiff when hunched over for an extended period? Or does sitting down make the pain go away or worsen? Many of these factors are associated with signs that you could be suffering from low back pain. Low back pain is considered the leading disability causes worldwide, as studies reveal, which can be influenced by many factors that a person is going through. Anyone can risk developing low back pain as it can derive from different sources that overlap many potential issues. Some of the causes associated with low back pain vary depending on how severely the factors affect the individual, which includes:

  • Muscle and ligament sprain (Overused muscles and ligaments from injuries, poor posture, or lifting heavy objects)
  • Herniated discs/ degenerative disc disease (Spinal nerve root compression)
  • Joint dysfunction (Cartilage begins to wear down)
  • Spinal stenosis 
  • Trauma
  • Deformity
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Fractures

 

The Symptoms

When it comes to the symptoms of low back pain, many individuals will experience pain ranging from a dull ache to a sudden shooting burning pain that travels down the legs. Many individuals often feel pain from one location of the lower half of the body; instead, it is located on the other side, known as referred pain. Low back pain can potentially mean that another issue is affecting the body. Some of the symptoms associated with low back pain include:

  • Muscle stiffness
  • Sciatica
  • Muscle spasms
  • Limited mobility on the hips and pelvis
  • Inflammation
  • Muscle tenderness

All is not lost, as treatments are available to manage low back pain symptoms and alleviate the body’s pain.


Aqua Therapy For Spine Health-Video

Have you been experiencing muscle stiffness in your lower back? Do hip pain and sciatic symptoms cause mobility issues in your legs? Or does it hurt when you are bending down to pick something up? You could be dealing with low back pain associated with chronic symptoms affecting the body, so why not try aqua therapy? The video above demonstrates what aqua therapy does to the body and the exercises used to relieve low back pain. Studies reveal that the therapeutic purposes of water have dated back to ancient Egypt, Greek, and Roman civilization; that helps cleanse the body from ailments. Many physical therapists utilize aqua therapy to enable individuals with low back pain. Aqua therapy engages the waters, buoyancy, resistance, and hydrostatic pressure that helps rehabilitate injuries and maintain health. 


Aqua Therapy For Low Back Pain

 

Many individuals that suffer from low back pain will try to find ways to alleviate the pain. Aqua therapy is one available treatment that doesn’t strain the lower back and has therapeutic properties. Studies reveal that the beneficial properties of aqua therapy allow the body to improve muscle strength and range of motion while reducing muscle fatigue by using water buoyancy to take the pressure off the spine. Since low back pain is a common health issue associated with environmental factors for many individuals, studies reveal that water buoyancy can eliminate the gravitational forces impacting the body weight by counteracting it. To that point, this reduces joint stress on the body to perform the water aerobic exercises with ease. Individuals who incorporate aqua therapy in their health and wellness journey may be more motivated to exercise in the water without worrying about constant pain.

 

Aqua Therapy Goes Hand In Hand With Chiropractic Care

Like any treatment, chiropractic care and aqua therapy have an excellent relationship as they work together to assess and analyze the individual’s problem and devise a plan for them. Chiropractors utilize spinal manipulation to determine where the pain is located. So when a person is dealing with low back pain due to spinal subluxation or misalignment, a chiropractor can help the individual by loosening the stiff muscles and increasing the range of motion back to the spine. At the same time, aqua therapy incorporates the same benefits associated with land-based physical therapy, including a treatment plan tailored to the individual. Chiropractors and physical therapists work together to determine the best possible action to speed up the recovery process when it comes to a person’s pain, giving them the best chance to get back their quality of life.

 

Conclusion

Low back pain is one of many individuals’ most common complaints worldwide. The many factors associated with low back pain vary and range from a dull ache to a sharp pain radiating down the legs as part of the symptoms of low back pain. Treatments like aqua therapy can help take the load off the spine through water buoyancy and can help reduce the stress on the joints in the lumbar spine while reducing muscle fatigue. Combined with chiropractic care, many individuals can recover faster from their low back pain and bring back their quality of life without being in so much pain.

 

References

Abadi, Fariba Hossein, et al. “The Effect of Aquatic Exercise Program on Low-Back Pain Disability in Obese Women.” Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, Korean Society of Exercise Rehabilitation, 31 Dec. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6944883/.

Allegri, Massimo, et al. “Mechanisms of Low Back Pain: A Guide for Diagnosis and Therapy.” F1000Research, F1000Research, 28 June 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4926733/.

Carayannopoulos, Alexios G, et al. “The Benefits of Combining Water and Land-Based Therapy.” Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, Korean Society of Exercise Rehabilitation, 26 Feb. 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7056478/.

Cole, Andrew, and Bruce Becker. “Water Therapy Exercise Program.” Spine, Spine-Health, 26 Feb. 2010, www.spine-health.com/wellness/exercise/water-therapy-exercise-program.

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