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Functional Endocrinology: Perimenopause

Functional Endocrinology: Perimenopause

Do you feel:

  • Hot flashes?
  • Mental fogginess?
  • Disinterest in sex?
  • Mood swings?
  • Increased vaginal pain, dryness, or itching?

If you are experiencing any of these situations, then you might be going through perimenopause.

When the body hits a certain age, the hormone levels will naturally increase then decrease, causing the person to experience symptoms that they never have. For women, they go through an aging progression known as menopause, which is a normal part of aging, and when the female stops producing eggs. Menopause occurs when a female is in her late forties to her early fifties, depending on which country they are from. Before a woman goes through the menopausal process, perimenopausal begins before the actual menopausal progression occurs. Not only that but when a woman goes through perimenopause, their endocrine system is being affected with hormonal changes as the hormones begin to fluctuate during the menopausal shift.

Perimenopausal

Perimenopausal can be defined in various ways; however, researchers can agree that perimenopausal begins when a woman starts to have irregular menstrual cycles. This is due to a natural decline in their ovarian function, and it will be their last menstrual period. Research shows that perimenopausal leads up to menopause and follows after post-menopause. Surprisingly though, during perimenopausal years, the hormone levels will begin to fluctuate, and the estrogen levels begin to become a bit higher than average. Afterward, though once menopause goes through the postmenopausal stage, the hormone levels will begin to decrease gradually naturally.

Perimenopausal Symptoms

estrogen

When it comes to the endocrine system, it plays a role when a female is going through perimenopause. Since the endocrine system produces hormones and is responsible for reproduction hormones, it makes sure that the female body has the two hormones estrogen and progesterone. When there is a lack of hormones in the female body, it is due to the effects of hot flashes that are caused by perimenopause. Now research shows that most women do not expect that to have hot flashes until they have menopause. It is one of the symptoms that all females get. Other symptoms can cause women to have them when they are going through. They are:

  • Hot flashes and night sweats: There is about an estimated 35%-50% of women who have perimenopausal, will suffer a sudden wave of body heat that is consist of sweating ant flushing that can last about five to ten minutes. Surprisingly it can happen at night as well when the body starts to sweat.
  • Vaginal dryness: When estrogen levels began to decline during late perimenopause naturally, it can cause the vaginal tissue to become a bit thinner and drier. When this happens, it can cause irritation, itching, and can be a source of pain during intercourse.
  • Uterine bleeding: When the progesterone levels start to decline, it can cause the growth of the endometrium, which is the uterine lining to become a bit thinker than usual before it sheds, thus resulting in a very heavy period. Not only that, but if a female has fibroids or endometriosis, then those two conditions may become a bit more troublesome.
  • Sleep problems: Studies found out that about forty percent of perimenopausal women have trouble sleeping. Between the night sweats and the disrupted sleep patterns, the problem can be a little complex to be blamed on the hormone oscillation, and the sleep cycles change as a person ages. Plus, insomnia is a common complaint for both sexes.
  • Mood swings: There is about ten to twenty percent of women who have experienced mood swings during perimenopause that has been linked to low estrogen levels. When women have experienced mood swings, it usually happens around midlife, like stress, poor overall health, and a history of depression.
  • Short term memory: Surprisingly, many women have complained about having short term memory problems as well as having a difficult time concentrating during the menopausal transition. Even though estrogen and progesterone help maintain brain function, there is too little information to separate the effects of aging and the psychosocial factors that can be related to hormone changes.

Studies have even found out that during the menopausal transition, the regular patterns of a female’s menstrual cycle will become disrupted, and the normal ovulatory cycle will decline naturally. At the same time, the gonadotropin levels will start to rise as well as the follicle-stimulating hormones will increase on a woman’s feature.

Conclusion

Menopause is a natural stage in a woman’s life. The hormone levels will begin to fluctuate, and it all starts when a woman’s menstrual cycle begins to stop. With perimenopause, it is the beginning of the menopausal transition as the female body starts to change. From hot flashes to irregular sleep patterns, perimenopause is a natural way to let the body know that change is coming. Some products are designed to help support the estrogen metabolism in both the female and male bodies as well as products to help support the hormonal balance and the normal menstruation for females in the reproductive age.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, and nervous health issues or functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We also make copies of supporting research studies available to the board and or the public upon request. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900.


References:

Publishing, Harvard Health. �Perimenopause: Rocky Road to Menopause.� Harvard Health, June 2009, www.health.harvard.edu/womens-health/perimenopause-rocky-road-to-menopause.

Buckler, Helen. �The Menopause Transition: Endocrine Changes and Clinical Symptoms.� The Journal of the British Menopause Society, U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2005, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15970017.

Cherney, Kristeen. � Effects of Menopause on the Body.� Healthline, 5 Feb. 2019, www.healthline.com/health/menopause/hrt-effects-on-body.

Edwards, Beatrice J, and Jin Li. �Endocrinology of Menopause.� Periodontology 2000, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Feb. 2013, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23240949.

Wexler, Tamara L. �Perimenopause and Menopause Overview.� EndocrineWeb, 25 Mar. 2016, www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/menopause/perimenopause-menopause-overview.


Modern Integrative Wellness- Esse Quam Videri

The University offers a wide variety of medical professions for functional and integrative medicine. Their goal is to inform individuals who want to make a difference in the functional medical fields with knowledgeable information that they can provide.

Functional Endocrinology: Blood-Brain Barrier and The Endocrine System

Functional Endocrinology: Blood-Brain Barrier and The Endocrine System

Do you feel:

  • Hormone imbalances?
  • Craving sweets during the day?
  • Weight gain?
  • Overall sense of bloating?
  • Shaky, jittery, or have tremors throughout your body?

If you are experiencing any of these situations, then it might be your blood-brain barrier and your endocrine system that may be imbalanced.

The brain in the human body is the primary control system that makes sure that each of the body’s system is working correctly. This includes the gastrointestinal system, the hepatic system, the neurological system, and, most importantly, the endocrine system. In the brain, however, there is a tissue known as the blood-brain barrier, it is connected to the endocrine system. It is essential to make sure that the blood-brain barrier and the endocrine system are healthy in the human body.

The Blood-Brain Barrier

The blood-brain barrier in the body separates the central nervous system from peripheral tissue. Even though the blood-brain barrier separates the nervous system, it does not prevent hormones from entering the brain. Research shows that the brain can bind and secretes any circulating substances and can be qualified as an endocrine organ. When this happens, it can be one of the largest and most metabolically active of the endocrine organs by acting as both the target and secretor of hormones.

20191001-cancer

With the blood-brain barrier, it conveys the blood vessels by transporting the blood from the heart to every tissue and organs throughout the body. It then delivers oxygen and the nutrients to all the tissues and removing the carbon dioxide and metabolic waste from the tissues. The blood vessels also convey hormonal signals to the tissues and is a mediator for interacting with the peripheral immune system with each tissue. Research shows that since the blood-brain barrier is an endocrine tissue, the substances that are being carried in the blood can emerge in a hormone-like fashion. The research stated that the blood-brain barrier could exhibit the endocrine system properties as well as being a target for hormones that can affect many of the blood-brain functions in the body.

The Endocrine System

The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secretes out and produces hormones that can regulate not only the body but makes sure that it regulates the body’s metabolism and many other functions that the body needs to function correctly. When the body’s hormone levels fluctuate, it can be very good or horrible, depending on the situation. If the body produces an abundance of hormones, it can cause a person to have hyperthyroidism, and when the body produces a low abundance of hormones, the body can have complications and cause the body to develop chronic illnesses. Stress, infections, and diabetes can influence the body’s hormone levels by making hormones either too much or too little. By making sure that the body’s hormones are at a balanced level is essential because eating right and doing daily exercises can make the body function properly and feel good as well.

Since the body can produce hormones naturally, the job of the primary hormone is to make sure that it is traveling in the bloodstream and making it to the various organs and tissues that need the hormone levels. The hormone levels can tell every organ and tissues what to do and how to function. When the hormone levels get crazy by being produced too much or too little, it causes those organs and tissues to malfunction.

For the blood-brain barrier, since it is an endocrine tissue, it can divide the hormone receptors. The research found out that the blood-brain barrier can respond to circulate the hormone substances and secrete those hormone substances into the blood circulation and the central nervous system. It can also make sure that when the hormone receptors are being divided that it goes to the central nervous tissues and the peripheral tissues. The research also found out that insulin levels can also affect the brain’s endothelial cell function through several parameters and modulating amino acids, leptin, and p-glycoprotein transporters in the body.

Surprisingly there is a unique feature that the blood-brain barrier possesses. The blood-brain relies on its cell membrane surfaces facing into the bloodstream and the interstitial fluid of the central nervous system so that way it can receive signals for the body. The research found out that the blood-brain barrier’s properties are primarily manifested within the brain’s endothelial cells. They can be induced and maintained through critical interactions with the cells that are interacting in the neurovascular unit in the brain. With these endocrine-like mechanisms that the blood-brain barrier has, it can help dampen the effects of endocrine diseases like neurodegenerative conditions and Alzheimer’s disease.

Conclusion

The blood-brain barrier is an essential tissue in the brain as it functions as an endocrine tissue and does play a role by interacting with the hormone levels that the endocrine system secreted out to the body. When the hormone levels start to malfunction by either producing an abundance or too little amount of hormones, it can cause the body to have chronic illnesses and the blood-brain barrier to dysfunction in the brain, causing degenerative neurological disorders in the brain as well. Some products can help the endocrine system by making sure the hormone levels are balanced as well as products for a healthy brain function for a healthy body.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, and nervous health issues or functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We also make copies of supporting research studies available to the board and or the public upon request. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900.


References:

Banks, William A. �Brain Meets Body: the Blood-Brain Barrier as an Endocrine Interface.� Endocrinology, Endocrine Society, Sept. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3423627/.

Banks, William A. �The Blood-Brain Barrier as an Endocrine Tissue.� Nature Reviews. Endocrinology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Aug. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31127254.

Daneman, Richard, and Alexandre Prat. �The Blood-Brain Barrier.� Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 5 Jan. 2015, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4292164/.

Zimmermann, Kim Ann. �Endocrine System: Facts, Functions and Diseases.� LiveScience, Purch, 18 Feb. 2018, www.livescience.com/26496-endocrine-system.html.


Modern Integrative Wellness- Esse Quam Videri

The University offers a wide variety of medical professions for functional and integrative medicine. Their goal is to inform individuals who want to make a difference in the functional medical fields with knowledgeable information that they can provide.

 

 

 

Functional Endocrinology: The Mind-Body Connection and Stress Part 1

Functional Endocrinology: The Mind-Body Connection and Stress Part 1

Do you feel:

  • Stressed out after a long day?
  • Irritable if meals are missed?
  • Shaky, jittery, or have tremors?
  • Agitated, easily upset, or nervous?
  • Hormone imbalance?

If you are experiencing any of these situations, then your mind-body connection might be unbalanced.

Throughout history, there have been studies and theories that the mind and body are separate. This theory has been accepted by many; however, there is so much evidence showing the mind, and the body having a bidirectional relationship in the body like the gut system that sends signals to the brain and vise versa. Since each organ sends its signals to the brain, the endocrine system sends out signals to the brain in the form of hormones, which can alter the person’s perception of the world through their eyes.

With that in mind, neuroplasticity has shown people that when they are in their environment, it can be altered the physical make up of the environment. Many modern scientists have acquired very sophisticated tools that can monitor the body’s brainwaves, the microbes, and many other factors that can change the body’s mind. Since stress is a full-body response, it can be both a good thing and a bad thing for the body. Good stress in the body gives the “fight or flight” response while the bad stress can become chronic and can lead the body to be dysfunctional. So the idea of having the mind and the body being a separate function seems to be a bit outdated but also informational.

somatic-psychology_feature.png

By exploring the science and psychology of the mind-body disconnect, researchers can see how a person�s hormones can affect their perception of the world. By diving into the body, researchers can also see how stress can produce any visible changes in the brain as well.

How Experiences Alters the Mind

Many experiences can alter the mind. Whether it be good experiences that can be used in the work atmosphere or it can be bad experiences like being traumatized from horrible events. Studies show that trauma can alter the mind and depend on the situation. Even though the damage that is caused by trauma can be healed if it is minor. In some cases, it can scar a person even though the physical damage is healed. The mental damage is affected as a person can relive the traumatic experience that they encountered.

With good experience, they can be useful to a person if the damage has minored. If a person accidentally hurt themselves from any activities, they know not to do that again. Although if a person practices on specific activities and get better at it with time, it becomes a skill they can use. Sometimes a person can have a set of specific skills that are beneficial when they are working in the job they are in. So depending on the experiences that a person is dealing with, it can be either good or bad, but their brains will remember it.

The Difference Between Dualism and Monism

There has always been a philosophical debate on the mind and body. There are different ways to look at the mind-body connection, as many researchers have debated whether the mind is part of the body or that the body is part of the mind. Thus the difference between Dualism and Monism has different views on the mind-body connection.

Dualism is defined as being born out of the body as a physical object, and the mind or the consciousness is being constructed. The origins of dualism started with the Cartesian ways of thinking, where people started to argue that there was a two-way relationship between the mental and physical substances in the body. Surprisingly, the belief of the physical and mental systems are compartmentalized and not inter-related like what some people think.

French philosopher Ren� Descartes stated that the mind interacts with the body through the pineal glands and that the mind controls the body. He also summed his thoughts with one of his famous statements: �I think therefore I am.� With this statement, it tells researchers that the mind is a nonphysical and non-spatial substance that is being identified with consciousness and self-awareness in the body.

With monism, it is defined as a material point of view and that all humans are just merely complex physiological organisms. There is another type of monism known as phenomenalism. It also goes by subject idealism, and the concept of this monism is that the mind and the body are two separate entities. With each type of monism, the concepts always seem to be the same, which shows that each type of monism seems to ignore either the mind or the body. It is always one or the other, never together at the same time.

How Stress Hormones Influences the Brain

When it comes to stress and hormones, there has been a lot of scientific advancements on how the stress hormone affects the brain in the body. Since hormones have been found to alter the hippocampal neurons with stress hormones, they can give the body the burst of energy that it needs. Although, if there is a long-term activation of the stress hormone can wear the brain down and kill the brain’s cells. If someone has any psychological disorders that cause prolonged stress, it can impair cognitive function, and the results can be enhanced emotionally.

Conclusion

With the mind-body connection, they can send signals to each other and make sure that the human body is functioning correctly. When there is prolonged stress in the body, it can disrupt the signals and cause the body to dysfunction. The next article will be discussing how stress can rewire the brain in the body. Some products can help the body by supporting the endocrine system as well as helping the body to relieve temporary stress.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, and nervous health issues or functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We also make copies of supporting research studies available to the board and or the public upon request. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900.


References:

Perry, Bruce D., et al. �Childhood Trauma, the Neurobiology of Adaptation, and �Use?Dependent� Development of the Brain: How �States� Become �Traits.�� Semantic Scholar, 1 Jan. 1995, www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Childhood-trauma%2C-the-neurobiology-of-adaptation%2C-Perry-Pollard/1d6ef0f4601a9f437910deaabc09fd2ce2e2d31e.

Team, Biotics Education. �Stress – The Mind-Body Connection Part 1.� Biotics Research Blog, 9 Dec. 2019, blog.bioticsresearch.com/stress-the-mind-body-connection-part-1.

Woolley, C S, and P A Schwartzkroin. �Hormonal Effects on the Brain.� Epilepsia, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1998, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9915614.


Modern Integrative Medicine

Functional Endocrinology: The Hippocampus and Stress

Functional Endocrinology: The Hippocampus and Stress

Do you feel:

  • Stressed out?
  • Have uncontrollable weight gain?
  • Can you not remember specific stuff?
  • Agitated, jittery, anxious?
  • Inflammation?

If you are experiencing any of these situations, then your hippocampus might be lowered than usual.

The Hippocampus

In the brain, there is an S-shaped structured located in the inner folds in the temporal lobe called the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a complex brain structure that has a layer of densely packed neurons, and its primary function involves how humans learn and how their memory works. The hippocampus is part of the limbic system as well since it works the feeling and reacting function in the body. The limbic system is situated at the edge of the cortex and includes the hypothalamus and the amygdala.

Hippocampus-Brain-female-2-big-bigstock.jpg

These structures help controls the body�s different functions like the endocrine system and the �fight or flight� reaction response. With the hippocampus helping humans process what information they are learning, this structure can retrieve two kinds of memories that are important; they are declarative memories and spatial relationship memories.

  • Declarative memories: These are memories that are related to facts and events a person experience. It includes examples like how to memorize speeches or line in a play that a person is doing.
  • Spatial relationship memories: These memories involve pathways or routes that a person must learn. An example of this is transportation drivers like cab drivers, bus drivers, and truckers who have to learn the routes in the places they are going to. So they use spatial memory and practice their routes many times until they have it in their memories. The spatial relationship memories are stored on the right side of the hippocampus.

Sadly though, the hippocampus can be damaged by neurological diseases like Alzheimer�s disease and PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder). When it is damaged, a variety of conditions can affect the hippocampus�s ability to do its job for the brain, thus making the individual suffer from retaining information.

Hippocampus Conditions

Several conditions can cause problems to the body when the hippocampus is damaged. This is known as hippocampus atrophy, where the neurons and neuronal volume in the hippocampal that is a loss.

Alzheimer�s Disease

Alzheimer�s disease is when an individual begins to lose their memory. When the hippocampus is damaged, it can cause a dissociation between the cortexes and leads to information registration failure. Studies show that when Alzheimer�s disease is progressing, the hippocampus will lose its volume, and it will become harder for an individual to function in their daily lives.

Epilepsy

When a person has epilepsy, it might be due to a damaged hippocampus. Research shows that around 50 to 75% of patients with this disease may have hippocampal sclerosis, and in case they have died, they have medial temporal lobe epilepsy. More research states that the mechanics of hippocampal sclerosis in epilepsy can be related to the development of inflammation on the uncontrolled local hippocampus and blood-brain barrier damage.

Hypertension

When the hippocampus is damaged, hypertension can happen to a person. Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure, and it can lead to severe health complications to the body. Even though the causes of hypertension are still unknown, the risk factors from hypertension can include:

  • Environmental factors like stress or a lack of exercise
  • Hormone activity
  • Blood plasma

Studies show that hypertension and other risk factors are being increasingly viewed as a putative factor that is leading to hippocampal atrophy.

Cushing�s Disease

Cushing�s disease or Cushing syndrome is when the body is exposed to high levels of cortisol for a long time. Studies show that when there is a loss of cellular volume to the corticosteroid�s levels in the body and it could be responsible. When there is too much cortisol being produced in the body, it is one of the signs of Cushing syndrome. Some of the other signs include:

  • Weight gain
  • Fatty tissue deposits around the midsection, face, upper back and between the shoulders
  • Pink or purple stretch marks
  • Thinning, fragile skin that bruises easily
  • Slow healing cuts, insect bites and infections
  • Acne
  • Muscle weakness
  • Cognitive difficulties
  • Loss of emotional control

Since stress does play a role in the endocrine system and the neurological system, there are nearly 80 years of research on how much focus has been on the various levels of the HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis and the hormones it produces. It shows that glucocorticoids as the mediators for the stress effects on the hippocampus and being the contributing factor for stress-associated psychopathologies.

Conclusion

The hippocampus is located in the temporal lobe of the brain. This S-shaped structure can be easily damaged due to stress and other neurological factors that can affect the entire body and its systems. When harmful factors affect the hippocampus, it can lead the hormones that are producing to become imbalanced and cause dysfunction. Some products are here to make sure that the endocrine system is functioning properly and supporting the metabolic system, the gastrointestinal system, as well as making sure the hormones are balanced.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, and nervous health issues or functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We also make copies of supporting research studies available to the board and or the public upon request. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900.


References:

Anand, Kuljeet Singh, and Vikas Dhikav. �Hippocampus in Health and Disease: An Overview.� Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd, Oct. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548359/.

Dresden, Danielle. �Hippocampus: Function, Size, and Problems.� Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 7 Dec. 2017, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/313295.php.

Felman, Adam. �Hypertension: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments.� Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 22 July 2019, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/150109.php.

Kim, Eun Joo, et al. �Stress Effects on the Hippocampus: a Critical Review.� Learning & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 18 Aug. 2015, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4561403/.

Team, Mayo Clinic. �Cushing Syndrome.� Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 30 May 2019, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cushing-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20351310.

 

 

Functional Endocrinology: Inflammation and the Endocrine System

Functional Endocrinology: Inflammation and the Endocrine System

Do you feel:

  • That eating relieves fatigue?
  • Hormone imbalances?
  • Aches, pains, and swelling throughout the body?
  • Bodily swelling for no reason?
  • Inflammation on your body?

If you are experiencing any of these situations, you might be experiencing inflammation, and it might affect your endocrine system.

Inflammation and the Endocrine System

Inflammation is a defense mechanism in the body. The immune system can recognize the damaged cells, irritants, and pathogens that cause harm to the body and began the healing process. When the inflammation turns into chronic inflammation, it can cause several diseases and conditions in the body and can cause harm to an individual.

Inflammation can cause dysfunction when it is in the endocrine system. The endocrine system is a series of glands that produce and secretes hormones that the body needs and uses for a wide range of functions. When the endocrine glands produce hormones, they are sent into the bloodstream to the various tissues in the body. Once they are in the various tissues, the hormone signals the tissues to tell them what they are supposed to do. When the glands do not produce the right amount of hormones, various diseases like inflammation can affect the body.

Inflammation Symptoms and Causes

Two questions are asked concerning the interaction of the endocrine system with inflammation: How does inflammation influences the endocrine system, and does it influences disease? How do hormones influence inflammation and immune cells? A theory had integrated both questions and has recently been demonstrated in the context of chronic inflammation considering a rheumatic disease.

inflammation-joint-pain-relife

So how does inflammation influence the endocrine system? Inflammation symptoms can vary depending on if it is acute or chronic. The effects of acute inflammation are summed up by the acronym PRISH. They include:

  • Pain: The inflamed area is most likely to be painful, especially during and after touching. The chemicals that stimulate the nerve endings are released, making the area more sensitive.
  • Redness: This occurs due to the capillaries in the area that is filled with more blood than usual.
  • Immobility: There may be some loss of function in the region of the inflammation where the injury has occurred.
  • Swelling: A buildup of fluid causes this.
  • Heat: Heat is caused by having more blood flow to the affected area and making it warm to the touch.

These acute inflammation signs only apply to an inflammation on the skin. If the inflammation occurs deep inside the body, like the endocrine system and the internal organs, some of the signs may be noticeable. Some internal organs may not have sensory nerve endings nearby; for example, they will not have pain.

With the effects of chronic inflammation, it is long term and can last for several months or even years. The results from chronic inflammation can be from:

  • An autoimmune disorder that attacks normal healthy tissue and mistaking it for a pathogen that causes diseases like fibromyalgia.
  • An industrial chemical that is exposed to a low level of a particular irritant over a long period.
  • Failure to eliminate whatever was causing acute inflammation.

Some of the symptoms of chronic inflammation can be present in different ways. These can include:

  • Fatigue
  • Mouth sores
  • Chest pains
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Rash
  • Joint pain

When inflammation affects the endocrine system, it can cause the body’s system to be unbalanced, and it can lead to chronic long term illnesses.

With the second question, it is asking how do hormones influence inflammation and the immune system? When the hormone levels are either too high or too low, it can have several effects on a person’s health. The signs and symptoms can depend on hormones that are out of balance.

Inflammation and Hormones

Research has shown that some of the conditions that are affecting the endocrine system can lead to autoimmune disorders. High levels of hormones can lead to hyperthyroidism, Cushing syndrome, and Graves disease. While low levels of hormones can lead to hypothyroidism and Addison disease. When the levels of the hormones are either too high or too low, the body fluctuates from either weight gain or weight loss and disrupting the glucose levels. This can cause a person to get diabetes and obesity.

Obesity is the main risk factor for type 2 diabetes. During the development of obesity, subclinical inflammatory activity in the tissues are activated and involves the metabolism and energy homeostasis. In the body, intracellular serine/threonine kinases are activated in response to those inflammatory factors. They can catalyze the inhibitory phosphorylation of the key proteins of the insulin-signaling pathway, leading to insulin resistance in the body.

2-Figure1-1 (1)

Studies have shown that inflammation is a general tissue response to a wide variety of stimuli. When inflammation is not adequately regulated, inflammatory responses may be exaggerated or ineffective, which can lead to immune dysfunction, recurring infections, and tissue damage, both locally and systemically. With various hormones, cytokines, vitamins, metabolites, and neurotransmitters being key meditators of the immune and inflammatory responses to the endocrine system.

Another study shows that aging, chronic psychological stress, and mental illnesses are also accompanied by chronic smoldering inflammation. Chronic smoldering inflammation in humans is already established with elevations of serum levels, leading to an increase in resting metabolic rate.

Conclusion

So inflammation is a double edge sword where it can heal the body but also cause the body harm if it is deep into the internal organs and body systems. With the endocrine system, the levels of the hormones can fluctuate from going too high or too low and affecting the tissues in the body, causing inflammation. �When an individual is suffering from chronic inflammation, it can change their lifestyle drastically. Some products are here to help counter the metabolic effects of temporary stress and make sure that the endocrine system is supported as well.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, and nervous health issues or functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We also make copies of supporting research studies available to the board and or the public upon request. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900.


References:

Coope, Andressa, et al. �MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Metabolic and Inflammatory Pathways on the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes.� European Journal of Endocrinology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, May 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26646937.

Felman, Adam. �Inflammation: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment.� Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 24 Nov. 2017, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/248423.php.

Salazar, Luis A., et al. �The Role of Endocrine System in the Inflammatory Process.� Mediators of Inflammation, Hindawi, 29 Sept. 2016, www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/6081752/.

Seladi-Schulman, Jill. �Endocrine System Overview.� Healthline, 22 Apr. 2019, www.healthline.com/health/the-endocrine-system.

Straub, Rainer H. �Interaction of the Endocrine System with Inflammation: a Function of Energy and Volume Regulation.� Arthritis Research & Therapy, BioMed Central, 13 Feb. 2014, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3978663/.

 

 

An Overview of Fibromyalgia

An Overview of Fibromyalgia

Do you feel:

  • Afternoon fatigue?
  • Headaches with exertion or stress?
  • Can you not stay asleep?
  • Slow starter in the morning?
  • Afternoon headaches?

If you are experiencing any of these situations, then you might be experiencing fibromyalgia.

Fibromyalgia is a common and chronic syndrome that causes pain and mental distress in the body. It causes widespread musculoskeletal pain, and it is accompanied by fatigue, sleep memory, and mood issues to the body.�The symptoms may be similar to arthritis; however, fibromyalgia is a rheumatic condition and causes soft tissue pain or myofascial pain.

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The NIAMS (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases) stated that around 5 million adults, ages 18 years and over in the United States had experienced fibromyalgia. Around 80 to 90 percent of fibromyalgia patients are mostly found in women who have this chronic disease, and men can have it as well.

Symptoms of Fibromyalgia

fibromyalgia

There are three symptoms that fibromyalgia causes a person to have discomfort in their daily lives. They are:

  • Widespread pain: This pain is associated with fibromyalgia, and it is described as a constant dull ache that can last for at least three months. For it to be considered as widespread pain, it must occur both sides of the body, as well as above and below the waist.
  • Fatigue: Individuals with fibromyalgia often awaken tired, even though they have been sleeping for long periods. The pain that fibromyalgia causes can disrupt the person’s sleep patterns, causing them to have sleep disorders such as restless legs syndrome and sleep apnea.
  • Cognitive difficulties: This symptom is commonly known as �fibro fog.� It impairs the person�s ability to focus, pay attention, and concentrate on mental tasks.

Other symptoms can include:

  • IBS (irritable bowel syndrome)
  • Stiff joints and muscles in the morning
  • Headaches
  • Problems with vision
  • Nausea
  • Pelvic and urinary problems
  • Depression and anxiety

In the past, studies have shown that patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia had 11 out of 18 specific trigger points all around their bodies. Healthcare providers would check their patients and document how many of these points were painful to their patients by firmly, but gently, pressing their bodies to get a diagnosis.

The typical trigger points include:

  • The back of the head
  • The tops of the shoulders
  • The upper chest
  • The hips
  • The knees
  • The outer elbows

Nowadays, in a 2016 revised diagnostic criteria, healthcare providers can diagnose patients with fibromyalgia if the patient has pain in 4 out of 5 areas of the body that is causing them pain. The protocol when diagnosing patients is referred to as �multisite pain.�

Fibromyalgia Affecting the Endocrine System

When it comes to fibromyalgia, the symptoms are associated with the endocrine system. Research shows that fibromyalgia-like symptoms such as muscle pain and tenderness, exhaustion, reduced exercise capacity, and cold intolerance can resemble symptoms that are associated with the endocrine dysfunction like hypothyroidism and adrenal or growth hormone insufficiency.

More research has stated that fibromyalgia causes a person to develop chronic fatigue syndrome. Chronic fatigue syndrome causes the body to have a deficiency of serotonergic activity and the hypofunction of sympathetic nervous system function that could contribute to the abnormalities of the central components of the HPA axis. It can distort the body’s hormonal pattern that is being attributed to the hyperactivity of the CRH neurons. The hyperactivity caused by the CRH neurons can be driven and sustained by stress being exerted by chronic pain that has originated in the musculoskeletal system or the alternation of the central nervous system mechanism of nociception.

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Researchers believe that repeated nerve stimulation causes the brains of patients with fibromyalgia to change. The change causes an abnormal increase level of certain chemicals (neurotransmitters) in the brain that signals pain. In addition, the brain�s pain receptors will develop a sort of memory of the pain that is causing problems to the patient�s body and causing them to be more sensitive since the signals are overreacting.

Treating Fibromyalgia

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Even though fibromyalgia pain can be uncomfortable and consistent enough to interfere with a person�s daily routine. There are ways to relieve the pain and inflammation that fibromyalgia causes the body. Pain medication can bring down the inflammation and help a person sleep a little better. Other safe treatments that can help manage fibromyalgia pain are:

  • Acupuncture: Acupuncture is a Chinese medical system that uses needles to cause changes in the blood flow and the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain and spinal cord.
  • Therapy: A variety of different therapies can help a person reduce the effects that fibromyalgia has caused.
  • Yoga and tai chi: These practices combine meditation, slow movements, deep breathing, and relaxation � both help control fibromyalgia symptoms.
  • Reducing stress: Developing a plan to avoid or limit overexertion and emotional stress is useful when dealing with fibromyalgia. Learning to meditate and trying stress management techniques can help a person feel calm and recharged for the rest of the day.
  • Getting enough sleep: Since fatigue is one of the main characteristics of fibromyalgia, getting enough sleep is essential. Practicing good sleep habits and going to bed and getting up at the same time each day can lessen the effects of fatigue.
  • Exercising regularly: At first, exercising may increase the pain, but doing it gradually and regularly over time can decrease the symptoms. This can be walking, swimming, biking, and water aerobics can be beneficial to the body.
  • Pacing yourself: Keeping track of activities is beneficial for people with fibromyalgia. Moderation of daily activities on the good days can help a person overcome the symptoms when they flare-up.
  • Maintaining a healthy lifestyle: Eating healthy food that has anti-inflammatory properties can be useful for the body, and finding enjoyable hobbies can be beneficial as well.

Conclusion

Fibromyalgia is a chronic illness that causes pain and inflammation that affects the soft tissue in the body. The symptoms can resemble joint inflammation and causes people to have fatigue and discomfort all over their body. When these symptoms flare up, it can cause body damage. Treatments can help a person reduce the effects of fibromyalgia and be beneficial. Some products are formulated to counter the effects of temporary stress and offer support in the gastrointestinal system and the body�s metabolism.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, and nervous health issues as well as functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at�915-850-0900�.


References:

Felman, Adam. �Fibromyalgia: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment.� Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 5 Jan. 2018, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/147083.php.

Geenen, Rinie, et al. �Evaluation and Management of Endocrine Dysfunction in Fibromyalgia.� Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America, U.S. National Library of Medicine, May 2002, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12122926.

Neeck, G, and L J Crofford. �Neuroendocrine Perturbations in Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.� Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Nov. 2000, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11084955.

Staff, Mayo Clinic. �Fibromyalgia.� Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 11 Aug. 2017, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fibromyalgia/symptoms-causes/syc-20354780.

Staff, Mayo Clinic. �Fibromyalgia.� Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 11 Aug. 2017, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fibromyalgia/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354785.

Unknown, Unknown. �Fibromyalgia.� National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 30 Sept. 2019, www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/fibromyalgia.

Wolfe, Frederick, et al. �2016 Revisions to the 2010/2011 Fibromyalgia Diagnostic Criteria.� Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, W.B. Saunders, 30 Aug. 2016, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0049017216302086?via%3Dihub.

 

 

The Role of Dietary Fibers and CKD

The Role of Dietary Fibers and CKD

Do you feel:

  • Edema and swelling in the ankles and the wrist?
  • Muscle cramping?
  • Frequent urination?
  • Poor muscle endurance?
  • Alternation in bowel regularity?

If you are experiencing any of these situations, then you might be experiencing chronic kidney disease.

About over 10% of the adult population suffers from CKD (chronic kidney disease), and the two leading underlying causes of the end-stage of chronic kidney disease are type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Other chronic ailments like dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, inflammation, oxidative stress, as well as environmental toxins and PPI (proton pump inhibitor). All these chronic ailments have been linked to chronic kidney disease in the body.

Chronic Kidney Disease

medical-illustration-of-healthy-and-diseased-kidneys

Chronic kidney disease is a slow and progressive loss of kidney function over several years. Also known as chronic renal failure, it much more widespread, and it often goes undetected and undiagnosed until the disease is well advanced. It is not unusual for anyone to realize they have chronic kidney failure when their kidneys are functioning only at 25% than average. As it advances and the kidney’s function is severely impaired, dangerous levels of waste and fluid can rapidly build up in the body.

kidney-stages

Chronic kidney failure is different from acute kidney failure due to being a slow and gradually progressive disease. When the disease is fairly well advanced, the conditions are more severe than the signs and symptoms are noticeable, making most of the damage irreversible. Here are some of the most common signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease include:

  • Anemia
  • Blood in urine
  • Dark urine
  • Edema- swollen feet, hands, ankles, and face
  • Fatigue
  • Hypertension
  • More frequent urination, especially at night
  • Muscle cramps and twitches
  • Pain on the side or mid to lower back

Dietary Fibers for CKD

Researchers have investigated that the role of dietary fibers and the gut microbiome is in renal diets. When there is a dysbiosis in the gut microbiome, it can be a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease, thus reducing the renal function. That function will significantly contribute to dysbiosis. The current renal dietary recommendations include a reduction of protein intake with an increase in complex carbohydrates and fiber.

A systemic review did a test that included 14 controlled trials and 143 participants that had chronic kidney disease. The test demonstrated that all 143 participants had a reduction in serum creatinine and urea that is associated with dietary fiber intake, which occurs in a dose-dependent matter. These participants had an average intake of 27 grams of fiber per day in their diet. It is also an essential note that creatinine is metabolized in the intestinal bacteria in the body.

Grain bread with different vegetable . Concept of healthy food

A high fiber diet can lead to the production of SCFAs (short-chain fatty acids) in the gastrointestinal tract. They play an essential role in T regulatory cell activation, which regulates the intestinal immune system. When there is dysregulation in the immune system, it can cause an increase of inflammation that may occur in chronic kidney disease. With a high fiber diet, the intake is associated with lowering the risk of inflammation and the mortality in kidney disease.

Increasing fiber intake is relatively easy with some of these high fiber foods that are both healthy and nutritious and can help individual’s that have kidney disease. These include:

  • Pears
  • Strawberries
  • Avocados
  • Apples
  • Carrots
  • Beets
  • Broccoli
  • Lentils

Research has previously demonstrated that a high fiber diet for CDK patients is characterized by the control increase of plant-origin protein and animal-origin foods. This is useful for individuals to limit the consumption of processed food products because of modern conservation processes, which has the purpose of eliminating pathogenic bacteria. People who have chronic kidney disease that go on a high fiber diet have been linked to better kidney function and lowering the risk of inflammation and mortality.

Some individuals may experience some gastrointestinal side effects when they are trying to increase their fiber intake.�Research has been stated that patients should consider resistant starches since it has shown no side effects with the recommended doses.

Conclusion

Chronic kidney disease is a slow and progressive loss of kidney function. The signs and symptoms are noticeable as the disease progress in the later stages. With a high fiber diet, individuals can lower the risk of inflammation and mortality of CDK. When this disease causes inflammation and chronic illness in the kidneys, complications can travel through the entire body. The high fiber diet can also be beneficial for the gut microbiome to function correctly, and some products can help lower the stress hormones and make sure that the body’s hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is functioning correctly.

October is Chiropractic Health Month. To learn more about it, check out Governor Abbott�s bill on our website to get full details on this historic moment.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal and nervous health issues as well as functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .


References:

D�Alessandro, Claudia. �Dietary Fiber and Gut Microbiota in Renal Diets.� MDPI, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 9 Sept. 2019, www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/9/2149/htm.

Gunnars, Kris. �22 High-Fiber Foods You Should Eat.� Healthline, 10 Aug. 2018, www.healthline.com/nutrition/22-high-fiber-foods.

Jurgelewicz, Michael. �New Article Investigates the Role of Dietary Fiber and the Gut Microbiome in Chronic Kidney Disease.� Designs for Health, 13 Sept. 2019, blog.designsforhealth.com/node/1105.

Khosroshahi, H T, et al. �Effects of Fermentable High Fiber Diet Supplementation on Gut Derived and Conventional Nitrogenous Product in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis: a Randomized Controlled Trial.� Nutrition & Metabolism., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 12 Mar. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=30911321.

Krishnamurthy, Vidya M Raj, et al. �High Dietary Fiber Intake Is Associated with Decreased Inflammation and All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.� Kidney International, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Feb. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4704855/.

Newman, Tim. �Chronic Kidney Disease: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment.� Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 13 Dec. 2017, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/172179.php.

Staff, Mayo Clinic. �Chronic Kidney Disease.� Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 15 Aug. 2019, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-kidney-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20354521.

 

Functional Endocrinology: Pancreatic Digestive Disorder

Functional Endocrinology: Pancreatic Digestive Disorder

Do you feel:

  • Difficulty digesting roughage and fiber
  • Indigestion and fullness the last 2-4 hours
  • Pain, tenderness, soreness on the left side, under the rib cage
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Stool undigested, foul-smelling, mucus-like, greasy or poorly formed

If you are experiencing any of these situations, then you might be experiencing pancreatic digestive disorders.

The Pancreas

The pancreas is a gland organ located in the abdomen. It is part of the digestive system, producing insulin and other vital enzymes and hormones that help break down food. It has an endocrine function, due to releasing juices directly into the bloodstream and has an exocrine function that releases juices into the ducts in the body.

pancreas

One of its many jobs the pancreas does is that it secretes out enzymes into the small intestine and continues to break down that left in the stomach. Another job is that it produces insulin and secretes it into the bloodstream, where it can regulate the body’s glucose or sugar level. When there is a problem with insulin control in the body, it can lead a person to have diabetes. Other health problems include pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

Pancreatitis

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Pancreatitis is an inflammation in the pancreas. It occurs when the digestive enzymes become activated while irritating the cells in the pancreas. With repeated damages to the pancreas, it can cause either two forms of pancreatitis, which is acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Both are very painful and can form scar tissue in the pancreas, causing it to lose its function. A poorly functioning pancreas can cause digestion problems and diabetes. Here are the conditions that can lead to pancreatitis:

  • Abdominal surgery
  • Alcoholism
  • Certain medications
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Gallstones
  • Obesity

Chronic Pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis is a long-term progressive inflammatory disease in the pancreas that can lead to a permanent breakdown of the structure and function of the pancreas in the body. Studies stated that the most common cause of chronic pancreatitis is long term alcohol abuse, it is thought to account for between 70 to 80 percent for all cases, and significantly it affects more men than women.

chronicpancreatitis

Common signs and symptoms of chronic pancreatitis include:

  • Severe upper abdominal pain that is more intense after a meal
  • Nausea and vomiting

When the disease progresses, the episodes of pain will become more frequent and more severe to individuals. Some individuals eventually suffer from constant abdominal pain, and as chronic pancreatitis progresses, the ability of the pancreas to produce digestive juices will deteriorate, and the following symptoms appear:

  • Smelly and greasy stool
  • Bloating
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Flatulence
  • Diabetes

There are numerous complications that an individual can potentially have with chronic pancreatitis. Nutrient malabsorption is one of the most complications since the pancreas is not producing enough digestive enzymes for the body to absorb the nutrients properly, leading to malnutrition. Another possible complication is the development of diabetes, where chronic pancreatitis damages the cells that produce insulin and glucagon to the body. Some individuals will also develop pseudocyst, which is fluid-filled that can form inside or outside the pancreas and can be very dangerous to the body since they can block the essential ducts and blood vessels.

Acute Pancreatitis

Acute pancreatitis is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas. It causes the enzymes to be excessively produced, causing the pancreas gland to be swollen and inflamed. It will make digestion slow down and become painful, making the other body functions be affected as well as making the pancreas be permanently damaged and scarred.

Acute pancreatitis is painful and can develop quickly. It can trigger potentially fatal complications as the mortality rate can range from less than 5 percent to over 30 percent, depending on the severity of the condition and if it reaches to the other organs beyond the pancreas. The most common cause of acute pancreatitis is the production of gallstones in the gallbladder, alcohol misuse, and infections.

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When a person has acute pancreatitis, they feel the pain in the lower abdomen and then feel it more gradually as the pain intensified until it is a constant ache. Other symptoms include:

  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Pain with coughing, vigorous movements, and deep breathing
  • Tenderness when the abdomen is touched
  • Fever
  • Jaundice, yellowish tinge on the skin and the whites of the eyes

Pancreatic Cancer

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Also known as �the silent disease,” pancreatic cancer happens when uncontrolled cell growth begins to form in a part of the pancreas. Tumors develop and interfere with the way the pancreas works. Pancreatic cancer often shows any symptoms until the later stages, and it can be challenging to manage. The signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer include:

  • Pain in the upper abdomen that radiates to the back
  • Unintended weight loss or loss of appetite
  • Pale or grey fatty stool
  • Jaundice
  • New-onset diabetes
  • Blood clots
  • Depression
  • Fatigue

Conclusion

The pancreas is located in the abdomen, and its primary function is to produce insulin and necessary enzymes and hormone to aid the digestion of food. When complications are attacking the pancreas like pancreatic cancer and pancreatitis, it can damage the pancreas to stop producing insulin and can lead to chronic illnesses to spread all over the body. Some products can help support the sugar metabolism that the pancreas creates and offer nutrients and enzymatic cofactors to the gastrointestinal system in the body.

October is Chiropractic Health Month. To learn more about it, check out Governor Abbott�s proclamation on our website to get full details on this historic moment.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal and nervous health issues as well as functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .


Reference:

Banks, Peter A, et al. �The Management of Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis.� Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Millennium Medical Publishing, Feb. 2010, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2886461/.

Bartel, Michael. �Acute Pancreatitis – Gastrointestinal Disorders.� MSD Manual Professional Edition, MSD Manuals, July 2019, www.msdmanuals.com/en-gb/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/pancreatitis/acute-pancreatitis.

Brazier, Yvette. �Acute Pancreatitis: Symptoms, Treatment, Causes, and Complications.� Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 19 Dec. 2017, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/160427.php.

Brazier, Yvette. �Pancreatic Cancer: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment.� Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 23 Oct. 2018, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323423.php.

Colledge, Helen, et al. �Chronic Pancreatitis.� Healthline, 14 Sept. 2017, www.healthline.com/health/chronic-pancreatitis.

Crosta, Peter. �Pancreas: Functions and Disorders.� Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 26 May 2017, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10011.php.

Felman, Adam. �Chronic Pancreatitis: Treatments, Symptoms, and Causes.� Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 19 Dec. 2017, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/160459.php.

Health Publishing, Harvard. �Acute Pancreatitis.� Harvard Health, July 2019, www.health.harvard.edu/a_to_z/acute-pancreatitis-a-to-z.

Staff, Mayo Clinic. �Pancreatic Cancer.� Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 9 Mar. 2018, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pancreatic-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20355421.

Staff, Mayo Clinic. �Pancreatitis.� Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 7 Sept. 2019, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pancreatitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20360227.

 

 

Functional Endocrinology: Endocrine Disruptors

Functional Endocrinology: Endocrine Disruptors

Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that may interfere with the body’s endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, and immune effects in humans. It can be pesticides, plasticizers, antimicrobials, and flame retardants that can be EDCs. EDCs (endocrine-disrupting chemicals) can disrupt the hormonal balance and can result in developmental and reproductive abnormalities in the body.

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There are four points about endocrine disruption:

  • Low dose matters
  • Wide range of health benefits
  • Persistence of biological effects
  • Ubiquitous exposure

EDC can cause significant risks to humans by targeting different organs and systems in the body. The interactions and the mechanisms of toxicity created by EDC and environmental factors can be concerning a person’s general health problems. Including endocrine disturbances in the body since many factors can cause endocrine disruptors, one of the disruptors in the food contaminated with PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl esters) in fish meat and dairy.

Researchers also pointed out that once the contaminated foods eliminated from a person’s diet, then the endocrine disruptors decline, and the body began to heal properly. When a person eliminates the food that is causing discomfort to their bodies, they are more aware of reading the food labels to prevent discomfort anymore to the body systems.

Obesogen

Obesogen is a subclass of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) that might predispose individuals to the development of obesity. Their structure is mainly lipophilic, and they can increase fat deposition. Since the fat cell’s primary role is to store and release energy, researchers have found that different obesogenic compounds may have different mechanisms of action.

Some of these actions can affect the number of fat cells that are producing, while others affect the size of the fat cells, and some obesogenic compounds can affect the hormones. These compounds will affect the appetite, satiety, food preferences, and energy metabolism when the endocrine system plays a fundamental role in the body to regulate the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. Any alternations in the body can result in an imbalance in the metabolism and causing endocrine disorders.

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Studies even stated that exposure to obesogens could be found either before birth on utero or in the neonatal period. Obesogens can even cause a decrease in male fertility. When this disruption happens to the male body, environmental compounds can cause a predispose to weight gain, and obesogens can appoint as one of the contributors because of their actions as endocrine disruptors. Obesogens can even change the functioning of the male reproductive axis and testicular physiology. The metabolism in the male human body can be pivotal for spermatogenesis due to these changes.

Endocrine Disruptors and Obesity

Some endocrine disruptors that can affect the body can be through pharmaceutical drugs that can cause weight gain. A variety of prescription drugs can have an adverse effect that can result in weight gain since the chemicals found in prescription drugs have similar structures, and modes of action might have a role in obesity. Prescription medicine can stimulate the gut to consume more food, thus involving the body to gain weight.

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Another endocrine disruptor is PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). These are a family of environmental chemicals that occur in oil, coal, and tar deposits. They produce as by-products of fuel-burning like fossil fuel, biomass, cigarette smoke, and diesel exhaust. PAHs can either be manufactured to be used as medicines and pesticides or be released naturally from forest fires and volcanoes.

There are standard ways a person can be exposed to PAHs. One is through eating grilled, charred, or charcoal-broiled meats that a person eats. The other is through inhalation of smoke from cigarettes, vehicle exhaust, or emissions from fossil fuels that can irritate the eyes and breathing passageways in the body.

Coping with EDC Exposure

Even though obesity can adversely affect the body in a variety of health outcomes, there are ways to cope and minimize the exposure of EDC. Research shows that a person can minimize EDC exposure by consuming organic fruits, vegetables, and grain products insofar as possible. This includes an increasing number of fungicides routinely applied to fruits and vegetables that are being identified as obesogens and metabolic disruptors in the body.

Xenoestrogen vs. Phytoestrogen

When a person has an endocrine disorder, it might be due to the food they are consuming. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds that are in a wide variety of food, mostly in soy. They are presented in numerous dietary supplements and widely marketed as a natural alternative to estrogen replacement therapy.

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There is a health impact on phytoestrogen, and the plant-derived compound can either mimic, modulate, or disrupt the actions of endogenous estrogen. Xenoestrogen�are synthetically derived chemical agents from certain drugs, pesticides, and industrial by-products that mimic endogenous hormones or can interfere with endocrine disruptors. These chemical compounds can cause an effect on several developmental anomalies to humans. It can also interfere with the production and metabolism of ovarian estrogen in females.

Conclusion

Endocrine disruptors can interfere with the body’s endocrine system causing a health risk to an individual. EDC (endocrine-disrupting chemicals) can target many different organs and systems of the body by various factors that the human body is being exposed to. One of the EDC factors is obesogen, and it can cause a person to gain weight and be obese. Another factor is the exposure of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) through environmental factors like smoke inhalation or consuming charcoal-broiled meats. There are ways to cope with EDC exposure, and one is eating organic foods, especially fresh fruits and vegetables. Another is products that target the endocrine system and helps support the liver, intestines, body metabolism, and estrogen metabolism to ensure not only a healthy endocrine system but also a healthy body to function correctly.

October is Chiropractic Health Month. To learn more about it, check out Governor Abbott’s proclamation on our website to get full details on this historic event.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal and nervous health issues as well as functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .


References:

Cardoso, A M, et al. �Obesogens and Male Fertility.� Obesity Reviews : an Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27776203.

Darbre, Philippa D. �Endocrine Disruptors and Obesity.� Current Obesity Reports, Springer US, Mar. 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5359373/.

Holtcamp, Wendee. �Obesogens: an Environmental Link to Obesity.� Environmental Health Perspectives, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Feb. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3279464/.

Janesick, Amanda S, and Bruce Blumberg. �Obesogens: an Emerging Threat to Public Health.� American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, May 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851574/.

Janesick, Amanda S, and Bruce Blumberg. �Obesogens: an Emerging Threat to Public Health.� American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, May 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26829510.

Kyle, Ted, and Bonnie Kuehl. �Prescription Medications & Weight Gain.� Obesity Action Coalition, 2013, www.obesityaction.org/community/article-library/prescription-medications-weight-gain/.

L�r�nd, T, et al. �Hormonal Action of Plant Derived and Anthropogenic Non-Steroidal Estrogenic Compounds: Phytoestrogens and Xenoestrogens.� Current Medicinal Chemistry, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2010, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20738246.

Patisaul, Heather B, and Wendy Jefferson. �The Pros and Cons of Phytoestrogens.� Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Oct. 2010, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3074428/.

Singleton, David W, and Sohaib A Khan. �Xenoestrogen Exposure and Mechanisms of Endocrine Disruption.� Frontiers in Bioscience : a Journal and Virtual Library, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Jan. 2003, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12456297.

Unknown, Unknown. �Endocrine Disruptors.� National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2015, www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/endocrine/index.cfm.

Unknown, Unknown. �Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Your Environment, Your Health | National Library of Medicine.� U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 31 Apr. 2017, toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/chemicals-and-contaminants/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs.

Yang, Oneyeol, et al. �Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Review of Toxicological Mechanisms Using Molecular Pathway Analysis.� Journal of Cancer Prevention, Korean Society of Cancer Prevention, 30 Mar. 2015, www.jcpjournal.org/journal/view.html?doi=10.15430%2FJCP.2015.20.1.12.

Functional Endocrinology: Understanding Hormones From the Pituitary to the Receptor Sites

Functional Endocrinology: Understanding Hormones From the Pituitary to the Receptor Sites

The body secretes and circulates 50 different hormones to different organs in the body. Hormones are the chemical substances that coordinate the activities of living organism growth. They are secreted through the endocrine glands and travel through the bloodstream to different organs in the body to function properly. When there is an excessive quantity or an reduced quantity of hormones being produced, it can cause the body to malfunction and develop chronic illnesses.

The Pituitary Gland Functions

In neuroendocrinology, an endocrine gland can�t make a hormone without activation from a pituitary-stimulating hormone. The pituitary-stimulating hormone helps regulate hormones by secreting them to the endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is known as the �master gland� since it controls the activity of the other endocrine glands and it consists of 3 parts known as the anterior, intermediate and posterior lobes.

Anterior Lobe

adenohypophysis

The anterior pituitary gland is located in the sella turcica and is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain. It secretes a quantity of peptides and glycoprotein hormones that help regulate the growth, metabolism, reproduction and stress response. The anterior pituitary gland produces 6 hormones that circulate to their respective targets in the body.

  • ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone): This hormone is a tropic hormone as it regulates cortisol and androgen production to the adrenal cortex. Cortisol or stress hormones stimulates the release of ACTH, while the adrenal cortex secretes glucocorticoids to the body�s metabolism.
  • GH (Growth hormone): This hormone helps regulate the body�s growth, metabolism, and composition. GH is secreted by the somatotroph cells located primarily in the lateral wings of the anterior lobe. GH can also secrete in al pulsatile fashion and can have a maximal release during a circadian rhythm at night.
  • TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone): This hormone is involved by coordinating the signal regulation of the hypothalamus, the pituitary, and the thyroid. It requires the oxidation of dietary iodine, since iodine is absorbed through the small intestine and transported to the thyroid. After the iodine is transported it can be concentrated, oxidized and then incorporated into thyroglobulin to be formed to T4 and T3 later on.
  • LH (Luteinizing hormone): This hormone is highly important to both men and women, since it affects the sex organs and plays a role in puberty, menstruation and fertility. For women, it creates progesterone, which help regulate menstruation and supports pregnancy in the female body. For men, it creates testosterone, which helps regulates fertility, muscle mass, fat distribution, and red blood production in the male body.
  • FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone): This hormone plays an important part in the reproductive system and is responsible for ovarian follicles. For females, FSH helps produce estrogen, which is a group of sex hormones that help promote the development and maintenance of female characteristics in the human body, For males, FSH helps produce spermatogenesis and regulates sperm function in the male body.
  • Prolactin: This is a protein hormone in the anterior lobe. It has the ability to promote lactation to nursing mothers. It synthesizes within the pituitary gland, the central nervous system, the immune system, and the uterus.

Intermediate lobe

intermediate

The intermediate lobe is composed of a homogeneous population of the endocrine cells, the melanotrophs and secretes several bioactive peptides. It contains very few blood vessels and can be virtually avascular. The melanotrophs are richly supplied by nerve fibers that originate from the hypothalamus.

  • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone: This hormone has many functions in a diverse physiological role. It affects skin pigmentation and studies have shown that it has antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects that help decrease in nephrotoxin exposure to the body.

Posterior lobe

posterior

The posterior lobe is similar to the anterior lobe since they both control endocrine function and the body�s hormonal response to the environment. The hypothalamus receives neural signals from the brain and secretes polypeptide and neuropeptide hormones for storage in the posterior lobe until they are ready to be released. The hormones in the posterior lobe are in charge of regulating water retention and inducing uterine contractions.

  • ADH (Antidiuretic hormone): Also known as vasopressin, this hormone is a nonapeptide that is synthesized in the hypothalamus. It plays a bunch of important roles in controlling the body�s osmotic balance, regulates blood pressure, and makes sure that the kidneys are working. ADH is mainly responsible for tonicity homeostasis as they act primarily in kidneys to increase water reabsorption.
  • Oxytocin: Also known as the �love hormone�, oxytocin is also a neurotransmitter that is involved in childbirth and breast-feeding. It has benefits as a treatment for a number of conditions like depression, anxiety and intestinal problems and is produced in the hypothalamus. Studies show that females have a higher level of oxytocin than males, especially to nursing mothers with their babies.

Free-fraction Hormones

When an endocrine gland synthesizes a hormone, it is released into circulation and bound to as a protein. Hormones attach themselves to proteins but they can�t bind to hormone receptors. So what a hormone needs to do is to lose its binding protein to become a �free-fraction� hormone. Studies have stated that a fraction of a hormone that is free is called in vitro and it is equivalent to the fraction of a hormone that is free and available to be transported into tissues are called in vivo. Free-fraction hormones make up less than 1% of all circulating hormones since they don�t impact the hypothalamus-pituitary feedback loop.

Hormone Metabolites

Hormones are metabolized by hepatic and microbiome biotransformation pathways into various hormone metabolites. Hormone metabolites have their own impact on cell receptors, studies have shown that this impact is not fully understood yet but hormone metabolites are not a reflection of direct endocrine gland production but it can be metabolized in the liver as well. Hormone metabolites can bind to hormone receptors or can be eliminated by renal or fecal clearance pathways.

Conclusion

All in all, the body secretes and circulates 50 different hormones to different organs in the body. These hormones are chemically produced in the body and keep an eye on what each of the different organs is doing. It is important that the hormone receptors are functioning properly so that an individual is feeling good both inside and out. If there is a hormonal imbalance in the body, it can cause dysfunction and chronic illnesses to a person.

October is Chiropractic Health Month. To learn more about it, check out Governor Abbott�s proclamation on our website to get full details on this declaration.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal and nervous health issues as well as functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .


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Introducing The Endocrine System in a Functional Way

Introducing The Endocrine System in a Functional Way

The endocrine system is a network of glands and organs surrounding the body. While it is similar to the nervous system, it plays a vital role in controlling and regulating many body functions, as well as using chemical messengers called hormones. Since hormones circulate throughout the entire body, each type of hormone targets specific organs and tissues. The whole system is made up of glands and organs that release hormones into the body. Each has a different function to make sure that the human body is working correctly. If there is a disruption in one of the organs, it can cause problems and possibly lead to chronic illnesses later on.

Functioning The Endocrine System

In the endocrine system, it is responsible for regulating the body through the release of hormones. These hormones are secreted by the glands that travel through the bloodstream to various organs and tissues, telling them what to do or how to function in the body properly. Some of the bodily functions are controlled by the endocrine system. This includes the body�s metabolism, growth and development, heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, appetite, and sleeping and waking cycles.

hormone

Studies have shown that the endocrine and the nervous system work closely together since the brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system while returning the favor, the endocrine glands receive feedback to the brain. With an intimate relationship, both methods are referred to as the neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine system is a mechanism where the hypothalamus maintains homeostasis, regulates reproduction, metabolism, and blood pressure. The neuroendocrine system works together with the immune system as they play an essential role in maintaining and restoring homeostasis in the body to function correctly.

The Organs of the Endocrine System

The endocrine system has a complex network of glands that secrete substances. The glands produce, store, and release throughout the body, targeting specific organs and tissues. Here are what each gland does in the endocrine system and what their functions are in the body.

Hypothalamus

hypothalamus

The hypothalamus gland is known as the master switchboard located in the center of the brain. Its role is significant because it controls and creates many hormones in the body. It also makes sure that it has to keep the body in a homeostasis state as much as possible. If the hypothalamus is not working correctly, it can cause problems for the body, and it can lead to a wide range of rare disorders.

Pituitary

Screenshot 2019-10-08 10.16.09

The pituitary gland is known as the master gland due to regulating the other endocrine glands activities. It plays an essential role by balancing hormone levels in the body, and together with the hypothalamus gland, they control the involuntary nervous system. This system helps manage the balance of the energy, heat, and water in the body. The pituitary gland also produces several hormones that can either regulate most of the other hormone glands or a direct effect on specific organs. When the endocrine glands produce too little or an excessive quantity of hormones, it can cause the body to be imbalanced.

Pineal

The pineal gland is a small, pea-shaped gland that is in the brain and is sometimes called �the third eye.� It plays a role in producing and regulates hormones in females that may affect fertility and the menstrual cycle, including producing and excreting melatonin in the body. A 2016 study suggests that melatonin can help protect against cardiovascular diseases; however, there is still more research being done about the potential function of melatonin in the body.

pineal

When the pineal gland is not producing the correct amount of melatonin, it can cause an individual to have sleep disorders and accumulate an excessive quantity of calcium in the body. One of the most prominent symptoms that can cause pineal gland dysfunction is a change in circadian rhythms. A person can disrupt their circadian rhythm either sleeping too much or too little, having restless nights, and feeling sleepy at unusual times.

Thyroid

Screenshot 2019-10-08 11.28.42

The thyroid gland a butterfly wing-shaped gland that is located in the anterior neck. It plays a huge vital role in the metabolism, growth, and development of the human body. It regulates many body functions by constantly releasing a steady amount of hormones in the bloodstream. When the thyroid produces too much or too little hormones, it can cause hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in the body, causing many chronic illnesses in the body.

Parathyroid

The parathyroid gland is located behind the thyroid and plays a vital role in maintaining bone health, making sure the nervous system is running smoothly, and that muscles are pumping regularly. Parathyroid glands release PTH (parathyroid hormone), which regulates calcium in the bloodstream. Research shows that calcium is the only mineral in the body that has its very own dedicated regulatory gland. Calcium not only helps with bone strength, but it conducts electrical impulses in the nervous system and its energy in muscle cells. The PTH can also signal the kidneys and small intestines to save calcium from being digested.

parathyroid-gland

When the parathyroid gland produces an excessive amount or a decreased amount of PTH, it can cause hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism leading the body to have many malfunctions, including weak bones in the body.

Thymus

The thymus gland is known as �the forgotten, but very important organ.� �It produces progenitor cells, which matures into T-cells and helps the organs in the immune system to grow properly. According to an article published by the NLM (U.S. National Library of Medicine), it stated that the thymus is the primary cell donor for the lymphatic system.

thymus

One of the most common diseases that can cause thymus dysfunction is MG (myasthenia gravis), PRCA (pure red cell aplasia), and hypogammaglobulinemia. These diseases can attack the body and cause chronic illnesses in the immune system.

Adrenal

adrenal

The adrenal glands are located on the top of the kidneys and help produce sex hormones and cortisol, they even work together with the pituitary glands. When cortisol is released from the adrenal glands, it can help with the response to stress and many essential functions in the body. When abnormal signals are disrupting the number of hormones that the pituitary glands telling the adrenal glands to produce. It can cause vitamin D to unbalance and many chronic illnesses.

Pancreas

pancreas_vessels_label

The pancreas is located in the abdomen and is part of the digestive system. It produces insulin, essential enzymes, and hormones that help break down food and sends it to the small intestine. When the pancreas produces the insulin hormone, it secretes it into the bloodstream, regulating the body�s glucose levels. There are many problems if the pancreas is not functioning correctly, causing the entire body to malfunction. If the pancreas is not producing enough insulin in the body, an individual is at risk for diabetes. Another factor is the development of pancreatic cancer caused by smoking or heavy drinking. The best way to keep a healthy pancreas is to maintain a healthy balanced diet.

Conclusion

The endocrine system is a network of glands and organs that surrounds the body. Each gland sends out hormones throughout the body and transfers to the specific organs that need these hormones to function correctly. If there is a disruption in the endocrine system, it can cause the body to malfunction and develop chronic illnesses.

October is Chiropractic Health Month. To learn more about it, check out Governor Abbott�s declaration on our website to get full details on this proclamation.

So the mechanisms of an autoimmune disease can be either by genetics or by environmental factors that can cause an individual to have problems in their body. There are many autoimmune diseases, both common and rare, that can affect the body. The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal and nervous health issues as well as functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .


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