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The Gut-Brain Axis Affected By Somatovisceral Pain

The Gut-Brain Axis Affected By Somatovisceral Pain

Introduction

The gut-brain axis is fundamental to the body as it communicates bi-directional with the brain and the gut. Separately they provide different functions that are required of the body. The brain, part of the central nervous system, allows the neurons to travel to each overlapping nerve root while having a causal relationship with different muscles and organs connected to the spinal cord. While the gut, which is part of the gastrointestinal and digestive system, helps modulate the body’s homeostasis and regulates the immune system. The nerves, muscles, and organs correspond as the nerve pathways interconnect to the spinal cord. When injuries or traumatic events affect the body, it can lead the individual to suffer from pain affecting their body while increasing the risk associated within different locations. For example, chronic stress causing gut inflammation is associated with headaches or neck and back pain. Today’s article focuses on the gut-brain axis, what happens when chronic issues affect the gut-brain axis, and how somatovisceral pain affects the gut-brain axis. We refer patients to certified providers specializing in gastroenterology treatments that help those with issues that affect the gut-brain axis and overlapping problems impacting the body. We also guide our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is the solution to asking our providers insightful questions. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

06 LaValle Triad 2 Gut Immune Brain

How Does The Gut & Brain Work Together?

The way the gut and brain correlate together is quite remarkable. The gut allows food to be digested in the stomach to be bio-transformed into nutrients the body needs to function. While the brain sends neuron signals through the spinal cord, those signals help provide the sensory-motor functions to make the body move. Now, how do the brain and gut work together in the body? Well, studies reveal that the gut-brain axis correlates to the various systems like the autonomic nervous system, the HPA axis, and the nerves surrounding the gastrointestinal tract help the brain influence intestinal activity and regulate cognitive function. Each of these vital organs has a causal relationship where they:

  • Help with sleep regulation
  • Improve memory functionality
  • Helps coordinate physical and emotional well-being
  • Regulating inflammatory responses

When chronic issues affect the gut-brain axis, it can cause an overlap in risk profiles that rise in the body and not just in the brain or the gut. Studies reveal that issues that begin to affect the gut-brain axis can cause alteration within the bi-directional pathway and trigger other problems that correlate to the body.

 

Chronic Issues Affecting The Gut-Brain Axis

Have you been suffering from fatigue? How about reoccurring headaches that never seem to go away? Do digestive complaints like IBS, GERD, or gut inflammation affect more than your gut? These chronic issues can be various factors that impact the bi-directional connection of the gut-brain axis. Stress, gut inflammation, traumatic events, food allergens, autoimmunity, and metainflammation are some overlapping risk profiles associated with neck and back pain. Studies reveal that chronic stress in the brain can affect the gut’s composition and functionality by alternating intestinal permeability. When the gut microbiome is being affected, the harmful bacteria begin to overproduce and trigger the sympathetic branch of the nervous system to cause an imbalance of hormones to be released and be associated with stress-related muscle dysfunction in the body. So what does this implicates to the body? Let’s say, for example, that you have been experiencing pain in the cervical region of the spine, but your brain is telling the body that it is a headache. This is known as somato-visceral pain

 


An Overview Of Somatosensory Tract-Video

Have you been suffering from cognitive and memory dysfunction? How about experiencing gastrointestinal issues that are affecting your gut? Or have you experienced any cramping, gnawing, or sharp pain that seems to be triggered by movement and appears in one area of the body? This is known as somato-visceral pain and is defined as soft tissues and muscles experiencing pain that can affect the internal organs. Somato-visceral pain is much easier to identify than viscero-somatic pain because visceral pain is caused by damaged internal organs associated with distress in different body locations. At the same time, somato-visceral pain is often associated with musculoskeletal pain. The video above explains the somatosensory tract that is in the body and how the body responds to the somatosensory system. The somatosensory system is located within the peripheral and central nervous systems. It is responsible for modulating the body’s sense of touch, vibration, temperature, and pain receptors that are located in the body. When traumatic events affect the somatic nerves, they can trigger changes in the gut-brain axis and cause alterations to the affected organs.


Somatovisceral Pain Affecting The Gut-Brain Axis

When dealing with chronic stress, the effects cause a dysfunctional gut-brain axis and cause issues affecting the two organs. Studies reveal that when chronic stress becomes an associated mediator for gut disturbances and dysregulation of the gut-brain axis, it can cause an overlap in risk profiles in the body. So what does this mean, and how is the body affected by somato-visceral pain? First, let’s look at what happens when the body is affected by chronic stress. When stress affects the gut and the brain, it can cause issues like IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) or headaches. Studies reveal that IBS is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders that trigger visceral and somatic hypersensitivity on the sensory nerves. So the body experiencing sharp pain in the back or neck may be associated with IBS.

Now looking at headaches and their causes on the body, it is one example of somato-visceral pain. When a person is dealing with neck trauma due to an auto accident that causes whiplash can trigger cervicogenic headache. How do the two correlate with somato-visceral pain? Well, somato-visceral pain is when soft muscles and tissues are affected and can cause an impact on the internal organs. For cervicogenic headaches may trigger mechanical pain along the cervical spine to be aggravated by movement and be associated with musculoskeletal issues like rheumatoid arthritisankylosing spondylitis, or muscle strain on the upper cervical spine. Many individuals go to available treatments that can help them better understand the issue that is causing them to be in pain and how to alleviate them.

Conclusion

The gut-brain axis is fundamental in the body as it communicates bi-directional with the brain and the gut. These two organs help keep the body functioning as the brain provides neuron signals while the gut regulates homeostasis. The gut-brain axis helps the body by correlating with the various systems that help influence intestinal activity and control cognitive function. When traumatic factors affect the body’s soft tissues and muscles and trigger organ issues, this is known as somato-visceral pain. Somato-visceral pain is when the muscles are affecting the organs, and an example is cervical muscle strain associated with headaches. Providing much-needed information on available treatments can help many individuals when being examined by their physicians.

 

References

Appleton, Jeremy. “The Gut-Brain Axis: Influence of Microbiota on Mood and Mental Health.” Integrative Medicine (Encinitas, Calif.), InnoVision Health Media Inc., Aug. 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469458/.

Carabotti, Marilia, et al. “The Gut-Brain Axis: Interactions between Enteric Microbiota, Central and Enteric Nervous Systems.” Annals of Gastroenterology, Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology, 2015, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367209/.

Martin, Clair R, et al. “The Brain-Gut-Microbiome Axis.” Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Elsevier, 12 Apr. 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047317/.

Suslov, Andrey V, et al. “The Neuroimmune Role of Intestinal Microbiota in the Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease.” Journal of Clinical Medicine, MDPI, 6 May 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124579/.

Yuan, Yao-Zong, et al. “Functional Brain Imaging in Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Rectal Balloon-Distention by Using Fmri.” World Journal of Gastroenterology, Baishideng Publishing Group Inc, June 2003, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4611816/.

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An Understanding Of Somatic Pain & Gut Disorders

An Understanding Of Somatic Pain & Gut Disorders

Introduction

The body relies on the gut system to help regulate its homeostasis and metabolize the nutrients for the immune system. The beneficial gut bacteria help maintain the intestinal walls from developing chronic issues and affecting the entire body. The gut system also provides information to the central nervous system through the spinal cord to the brain. The neuron signals help transport the information to all the corresponding muscles, tissues, and organs that require the gut system to stay healthy and functional. When the gut develops issues, the related muscles, tissues, nerves, and surrounding organs begin to feel the effects, causing the body to be dysfunctional. When this happens, many individuals will start to suffer pain and go to their physicians to find relief. Today’s article focuses on the sympathetic nervous system, how it affects the body, and how gut disorders can disruptively affect the sympathetic nerves in the surrounded torso area. We refer patients to certified, skilled providers specializing in gastrointestinal and chiropractic treatments that help those suffering from gut disorders and bodily pain. We also guide our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is critical for asking insightful questions to our providers. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

 

Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions or concerns, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

Lobzova.NYCOMEC.05.25.2017

The Sympathetic Nervous System

 

Have you been feeling stressed throughout the entire day? Do symptoms of inflammation tend to flare around the abdominal area or the abdominal organs? Do your muscles seem to tense up more than they should, even in their relaxed state? All of these signs and symptoms that affect the abdominal region of the body are all connected to the sympathetic nervous system in the body. Research studies have defined the sympathetic nervous system as part of the autonomic nervous system, a central nervous system component. The best way to describe the sympathetic nervous system is that it activates the adrenal glands to produce the hormone adrenaline causing the body to be in a “fight or flight” mode. The sympathetic nerves also help regulate the alpha and beta receptor activity of the various corresponding organs that stimulate the blood vessels surrounding the body, causing a relationship of the organs to the muscles.

 

How Does It Affect The Body?

As part of the autonomic system, the sympathetic nervous and parasympathetic systems help the body achieve homeostasis by exerting influences over the organ systems. Research studies have shown that this causes the organ systems to upregulate and downregulate the various functions that each muscle needs. Some of the tasks that the sympathetic nervous system that activates these organs include:

  • An increased metabolism
  • Decreased GI motility
  • An increased heart rate
  • An increase in movement and strength
  • Suppression in the immune system
  • Constriction of the large arteries and veins
  • Increase glucose production

Additional studies have noticed that the neurons in the sympathetic nervous system help prepare the body for various physical activities that affect the organs. This causal relationship between the organs and muscles helps redirect the blood flow to different body parts. The sensory impulses of the somatic tissue will then correlate to the spinal cord’s thoracic and lumbar spinal regions. When these nerves become irritated, it can coincidently cause a direct overlap on the muscles and visceral organs surrounding the nerves, changing their functionality. This causes somatic dysfunction to create the impression of overlapping profiles affecting the internal organs.


An Overview Of The Sympathetic Nervous System-Video

Have you experienced knee pain while having issues in the pelvic region? How about feeling pain in the lower abdomen that triggers spinal stiffness in the lumbar parts of the back? Or have you noticed any pain from the testicular area is relieved after a spinal manipulation? These symptoms are mediators of the sympathetic nervous system when internal organs are damaged. The video above explains the sympathetic nervous system and how it functions in the body. When the body suffers from traumatic forces or ordinary factors, it can cause an increased risk of other associated problems that can also affect it. The afferent fibers from the sympathetic nervous system can carry the pain signals from the somatic and visceral tissues that converge at the common synaptic site that is within the spinal cord. Research has stated that the somatic nociceptive signals can disrupt the gastrointestinal tract due to stress from various locations in the gut system. When this happens, it can cause an overlap of risk profiles in the entire body.


How Do Gut Disorders Affect The Sympathetic Nerves?

 

The way the gut system works is that it provides homeostasis to the body by regulating the immune system. When the sympathetic nerves are intertwined with the gut system and the spinal cord, research studies show that the sympathetic innervation to the GI tract helps regulate the motility, secretion, and blood flow by correlating to the nervous system’s activity and modulating GI inflammation. When the guts system begins to suffer from disorders affecting the entire body, it can trigger alarm points to the meridians that closely associate with one or more internal organs in the gut system. These alarm points are coincidentally represented as the first instances of visceral pain or tenderness to the somatic structures. When this happens, many physicians will notice that visceral pain involvement overlaps with referred pain, correlating with the individual’s history and other signs of dysfunction. This is a technique called nerve tracing, where physicians follow the line of tenderness from a painful region of the body to the spine, like how GI issues can cause musculoskeletal pain and disturb the visceral tone. 

 

Conclusion

The body requires the gut to maintain homeostasis and help regulate the immune system. The gut system also provides information to the central nervous system by letting the neuron signals transport the sensory-motor functions through the sympathetic nervous system to make the body functional. The sympathetic nerves help provide organ activation to the body that can help prepare the body for various activities. When the sympathetic nerves become irritated, it can cause the muscles and organs to be triggered and change their functionality. This can make the surrounding organs and muscles have an increased risk associated with other disorders that affect the body and correlate to different symptoms. When individuals inform their primary physicians about these symptoms, it gives them a better understanding of these disorders’ causation.

 

References

Alshask, Mark N, and Joe M Das. “Neuroanatomy, Sympathetic Nervous System.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 14 May 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK542195/.

Boezaart, Andre P, et al. “Visceral versus Somatic Pain: An Educational Review of Anatomy and Clinical Implications.” Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2021, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34145074/.

Cervi, Andrea L, et al. “Neural Regulation of Gastrointestinal Inflammation: Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System.” Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical, U.S. National Library of Medicine, May 2014, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24412637/.

LeBouef, Tyler, et al. “Physiology, Autonomic Nervous System.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 8 May 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538516/.

Waxenbaum, Joshua A, et al. “Anatomy, Autonomic Nervous System – Statpearls – NCBI Bookshelf.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 29 June 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539845/.

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The Mechanisms Between Visceral Hypersensitivity & The Gut

The Mechanisms Between Visceral Hypersensitivity & The Gut

Introduction

The gastrointestinal or gut system helps modulate the body’s homeostasis and metabolize the immune system. With its connection to the brain, the gut can help transport the nutrients and additional information to the corresponding muscles, tissues, and organs to function. These muscles, tissues, and organs all have a job to do and help the body stay healthy from internal and external factors that can harm the gut system. When internal factors disrupt the gut system, it can lead to various symptoms affecting the gut and the internal organs and muscles surrounding the gut system. Today’s article looks at one of the gut disorders known as irritable bowel syndrome and its effect on the lumbar back, and how gut issues in the body cause visceral hypersensitivity. We refer patients to certified, skilled providers specializing in gastrointestinal and chiropractic treatments that help those suffering from gut issues like irritable bowel syndrome and back pain. We also guide our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is critical for asking insightful questions to our providers. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

 

Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions or concerns, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

01 - Guilliams Overview of GI

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Affecting The Body

Have you experienced chronic inflammation in your gut? Have you been feeling overly stressed and constantly affecting your gut? Has your favorite food been causing issues in your gut? Experiencing these symptoms are signs that you might have IBS or irritable bowel syndrome. Research studies have defined IBS as one of the most common diagnoses of gastrointestinal diseases. When a person starts to develop IBS in their gut system, many factors can come into play that can cause the development. IBS is usually formed when there are altercations in the intestinal walls. This causes the gut bacteria to leak out and causes the immune system to attack the intestinal wall linings. Other research studies have mentioned that inflammatory effects can cause visceral hypersensitivity to affect the body by increasing high concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in the enteric nerves and having a high mast cell count. 

 

Many factors like food sensitivities, bacterial overgrowth, visceral hypersensitivity, and intestinal inflammation are some of the various implications of the pathology of IBS. Research studies have found that when lifestyle changes alter the gut system, it can be associated with discomfort in the abdominal regions while affecting the biochemical integrity. Additional research studies have mentioned that when an individual suffers from IBS, the stressful impact can cause visceral pains to rise in extremities causing the surrounding organs in the gut system to become hypersensitive. IBS associated with visceral pain can also affect the pelvic region and the lower back, causing another set of issues that affect the body. 


An Overview Of Abdominal Pain-Video

Have you been feeling inflammation in your gut? Does your lower back or pelvic region begin to ache or make you feel uncomfortable? Have you been experiencing IBS or other gut issues? Many of these symptoms are common in individuals with IBS and abdominal pain. The video above gives an excellent explanation of the three different problems that can affect the abdominal region of the body. Research studies have mentioned that visceral pain is a highly complex disorder that can affect a person who either haves or hasn’t had any structural changes or biochemical abnormalities affecting their gut. When a person’s gut becomes hypersensitive to visceral pain, it can affect the different afferents to arise when the lumbosacral spinal cord aggravates.


Visceral Hypersensitivity Caused By Gut Issues

 

When the visceral reflexes become hypersensitive, research studies have found that visceral hypersensitivity has become a clinical marker for individuals that suffer from IBS. Some of the symptoms can include:

  • Frequent bowel movements
  • Bloating
  • Abdominal pain

Another indication of visceral hypersensitivity due to IBS is when it is nociceptive input from the colon that can lead the gut system to have hypersensitivity and this can increase the intestinal permeability that alters the gastrointestinal tissues. When this happens it can cause the blood microvessels to make the other targeted organs become hypersensitive as well. Additional research studies have found that when there is abdominal pain in the gut system it can cause other disorders like noncardiac chest pain and other conditions that can develop in the peripheral tissues in the body. When individuals begin to make small changes in their lifestyle habits, it can be beneficial to the other systems and the muscles that have been affected.

 

Conclusion

The gut or gastrointestinal system helps the body regulate its homeostasis and metabolize the immune system to keep the muscles and surrounding organs functional. When internal or external factors cause problems in the gut system, it can develop into IBS and be associated with visceral hypersensitivity to the corresponding organs and muscles, causing various issues that can make the body dysfunctional. The lumbosacral spinal cord and its nerves become aggravated and cause pelvic and low back pain in the lower half of the body. When this happens, a person will become miserable and affect their quality of life. By making small habit changes in relieving IBS from the gut, the rest of the body will begin to heal naturally.

 

References

Farmer, Adam D, and Qasim Aziz. “Gut Pain & Visceral Hypersensitivity.” British Journal of Pain, SAGE Publications, Feb. 2013, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590155/.

Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley, and Anthony C Johnson. “Stress-Induced Chronic Visceral Pain of Gastrointestinal Origin.” Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, Frontiers Media S.A., 22 Nov. 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5702626/.

Hadjivasilis, Alexandros, et al. “New Insights into Irritable Bowel Syndrome: From Pathophysiology to Treatment.” Annals of Gastroenterology, Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology, 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6826071/.

Mayer, E A, and G F Gebhart. “Basic and Clinical Aspects of Visceral Hyperalgesia.” Gastroenterology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 1994, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8020671/.

Patel, Nicolas, and Karen Shackelford. “Irritable Bowel Syndrome.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 10 July 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534810/.

Saha, Lekha. “Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Evidence-Based Medicine.” World Journal of Gastroenterology, Baishideng Publishing Group Inc, 14 June 2014, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4051916/.

Zhou, QiQi, and G Nicholas Verne. “New Insights into Visceral Hypersensitivity–Clinical Implications in IBS.” Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2011, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3437337/.

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Pelvic Pain & Gut Disorders

Pelvic Pain & Gut Disorders

Introduction

The body is held up by skeletal joints that keep the body upright and provide everyday movements for the body to go anywhere at any time. The musculoskeletal system provides the muscles, tissues, and ligaments that encase the skeletal joints protecting them from unknown factors that can cause harm to the body. The internal organs also have a purpose in the body as they help provide the nutrients and necessary hormones to the muscles and joints that need these nutrients to function. When environmental factors affect the body, either internal or external, it can cause the body to become dysfunctional and even cause unwanted symptoms that affect the internal organs that correspond to the muscles suffering. Today’s article looks at pelvic pain, how gut disorders are associated with pelvic pain, and how viscerosomatic pain affects the pelvis. We refer patients to certified, skilled providers specializing in osteopathic and gut treatments that help those with gut disorders and pelvic pain issues. We also guide our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is critical for asking insightful questions to our providers. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

 

Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions or concerns, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

06 - Clarke John Integrative Dysmotility

What Is Pelvic Pain?

 

Have you been experiencing gut issues that are affecting your pelvic region? Has your gut been feeling inflammatory effects? Have you noticed that you need to go to the bathroom more frequently than usual? Many of these symptoms are some of the signs that are associated with pelvic pain. Research studies have defined pelvic pain as disabling, chronic, and persistent pain that commonly affects women. Pelvic pain can range from acute to chronic depending on how severe the pain affects the pelvic region of the body. Additional research studies have mentioned that pelvic pain in its chronic form can become a multifactorial disorder that can cause pain in the gastrointestinal, pelvic musculoskeletal, or nervous system, making the immune, neurological, and endocrine metabolism dysfunctional. When pelvic pain begins to affect the gastrointestinal system, it can lead to various gut disorders that can cause the pain to become worse if it is not treated.

 

How Do Gut Disorders Associate Pelvic Pain?

Research studies have mentioned that since pelvic pain is a multifactorial disorder, it can cause pain to arise in the internal organs in the gastrointestinal system. When pelvic pain starts to affect the gastrointestinal system, it can cause the development of gut disorders to affect the body further. When gut disorders co-exist with pelvic pain, it can cause an enhancement to the overall pain symptoms that are becoming the result of viscerosomatic dysfunction through the cross-organ sensitization mechanisms. Additional information studies have mentioned that gut disorders like IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) can cause changes in thermal/visceral pain sensitivity that overlap in the lower body’s pelvic region, further enhancing rectal/thermal pain. This can cause a person to become miserable and even affect their quality of life since they are suffering from so much pain.


Visceral Afferent Nerves Being Affected By Pelvic Pain-Video

Have you experienced gut issues like IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), inflammation, or IBD (inflammatory bowel disease)? Have you felt pain in your pelvic region constantly? Has the pain-affected certain areas in your body, not just your pelvis? If you have these symptoms, it might be due to your visceral nerves being involved. The video above explains what the visceral afferent nerves from the pelvic region are doing to keep the body functioning in the lower extremities. The visceral afferent nerves become aggravated by environmental factors affecting the body, including the gut system. Symptoms of inflammation and gut disorders from persistent aspects of many forms of stress or trauma can cause visceral pain to affect the body, thus causing pelvic pain, gut issues, lower back pain, and other body pains.


How Viscerosomatic Pain Affects The Pelvis

 

The body’s viscerosomatic pain can be complex since the organs also affect the corresponding muscles. The way the pain is described in the body from viscerosomatic pain ranges from dull to excruciating pain. Research studies have mentioned that the burden of viscerosomatic pain emanates from the internal thoracic, pelvic, and abdominal organs associated with the muscles. For visceral pain to affect the pelvic region, research studies have shown that the nociceptive pain from the pelvic area is usually visceral from the results from the pelvic organs that are poorly localized and can overlap with the somatic sensory tracts that are located in the spinal cord. When this happens, it can cause significant discomfort to the pelvic organs in the body and affect the individual with excruciating painful symptoms. 

 

Conclusion

The body provides everyday movements held by the skeletal joints that help the body go anywhere. While the musculoskeletal system and the internal organs help give the muscles, tissues, ligaments, and nutrients the body needs to function. When environmental factors affect the body, it can lead to various issues that cause gut disorders and even pain in the pelvic region, known as visceral pain. Visceral pain is a complex disorder since the affected organs also affect the corresponding muscles. For visceral pain to affect the pelvic area, it can lead to dull excruciating pain in the pelvic organs and affect the individual. Visceral pain can also overlap the sensory somatic tracts in the spinal cord, causing unbearable painful symptoms to the body while inflammatory issues in the gut system are developing. When people realize that the pain is affecting them, they can start to find treatments from their specialized providers to help alleviate their pain.

 

References

Dydyk, Alexander M, and Nishant Gupta. “Chronic Pelvic Pain – Statpearls – NCBI Bookshelf.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 11 Nov. 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554585/.

Grinberg, Keren, et al. “New Insights about Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS).” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, MDPI, 26 Apr. 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246747/.

Origoni, Massimo, et al. “Neurobiological Mechanisms of Pelvic Pain.” BioMed Research International, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2014, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4119661.

Udoji, Mercy A, and Timothy J Ness. “New Directions in the Treatment of Pelvic Pain.” Pain Management, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Sept. 2013, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3979473/.

Verne, G Nicholas, et al. “Viscerosomatic Facilitation in a Subset of IBS Patients, an Effect Mediated by N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors.” The Journal of Pain, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Sept. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3489925/.

Yuan, Tian, and Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld. “Abdominal and Pelvic Pain: Current Challenges and Future Opportunities.” Frontiers in Pain Research (Lausanne, Switzerland), Frontiers Media S.A., 4 Feb. 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8915637/.

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An Advanced Look At Visceral Pain & Gut Issues

An Advanced Look At Visceral Pain & Gut Issues

Introduction

The body works by ensuring that the brain in the central nervous system and the gut in the gut system are metabolizing homeostasis and regulating the immune system for optimal functionality. With the gut-brain axis having a bi-directional partnership in relaying the information back and forth, the body can function normally without any disturbances that can harm the body. However, various factors can affect the brain, and the gut as disorders like inflammation, bacterial overgrowth, and food sensitivities can affect the intestinal walls. When gut disorders affect the body, the corresponding muscles and tissues also become affected through visceral pain. Today’s article looks at the gut microbiota’s role in the body, how visceral pain affects the gut microbiota, and how pelvic pain with abdominal bloating is associated with gut disorders. We refer patients to certified, skilled providers specializing in osteopathic and chiropractic treatments. We also guide our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is critical for asking insightful questions to our providers. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

 

Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions or concerns, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

02 - Gerard Clarke Gut Microbiome in Health & Disease-compressed

How The Gut Microbiome Helps The Body

 

Have you experienced inflammatory effects located in your gut? Have you felt muscle stiffness around the pelvic region of your body? Have you experienced bloating or other abdominal issues that are affecting your body? These could be signs that could be affecting your gut microbiota. Research studies have mentioned that the gut microbiota in the body plays a vital role in influencing beneficial bacteria in the intestines while supporting the body’s homeostasis and regulating metabolism. The gut system is sustainable from environmental factors that cause dysbiosis and numerous gut disorders affecting the host’s body structure. Additional research also mentioned that when various ecological factors do affect the gut system, it can alter the gut’s composition and threaten to impose on the gut’s integrity. When the gut system begins to be involved, the rest of the body starts to be dysfunctional. Corresponding muscles, tissues, and organs will experience pain and other disorders that can make people feel like something is off with their bodies. At the same time, their gut system is being affected.


Visceral Reflexes Overview- Video

Have you felt gut disorders affecting your joints or muscles? Have you been feeling dysfunctional in your urinary tract? Or what about cardiovascular issues that seem to cause problems in your arms or legs? Many of these symptoms are caused by visceral pain where the visceral reflexes are damaged and affect the corresponding muscles in the body. The video above explains how visceral reflexes work in the body and how they send information to the brain when changes affect the connected components in the body. Research shows that when gut issues impact visceral pain, it can affect the mechanics mediating visceral nociception. Whenever gut issues move the visceral reflexes, it can cause nerve termination to the spinal cord, and gastrointestinal factors like inflammation and oxidative stress will begin to rise in the body. 


Visceral Pain & The Gut Microbiome

 

Whenever environmental factors affect the gut microbiota, it can cause the body to become dysfunctional and correspond with the affected muscles, tissues, joints, and organs suffering from gut disorders. Research studies have found that the gastrointestinal tract receives a dual innervation from the spinal neuron and the vagus nerve. When the gastrointestinal system becomes dysfunctional and starts promoting inflammatory markers that affect the viscerosomatic nerves, these nerves can become hypersensitive. Research studies have defined visceral pain as one of the most prevalent pains associated with gut disorders. When it comes to visceral pain and the gut impacting the body, many people experience the pain coming from their internal organs and hurting their quality of life. Additional research studies have noticed that hypersensitive visceral pain can cause functional and morphological alteration in the gut and nervous systems. This will cause other disorders that become affected by gut issues caused by visceral pain.

 

Pelvic Pain & Abdominal Bloating Associated With Gut Disorders

Research studies have mentioned that when the viscerosomatic nerves become hypersensitive due to gut disorders, it can affect the lower gastrointestinal organs and joints like the vagal, pelvic, and splanchnic afferents. When the gut system is experiencing issues like inflammation and stress, which causes the visceral nerves to be hypersensitive, many people will begin to experience pelvic pain and abdominal bloating associated with gut disorders. For pelvic pain, research studies found that pelvic pain occurs when there are peripheral somatic neuropathies start to mimic inner organs pathology. At the same time, the visceral pathology can change the peripheral somatic nerves to cause more pain in the pelvic region in the lower abdomen. As for abdominal bloating, research studies have concluded that alterations in the viscerosomatic reflexes cause abdominal wall protrusion. This causes the gut intestinal walls to be bloated and cause discomfort to the individual, and eventually causes pelvic pain as both are associated with gut disorders affecting the viscerosomatic nerves.

 

Conclusion

The gut system helps the body by regulating the body’s homeostasis and metabolizing the immune system. When environmental factors affect the gut system, they can also affect the corresponding muscles, tissues, joints, and organs. This is known as visceral pain, where the viscerosomatic nerves are damaged due to gut issues like stress or inflammation that are the products of gut disorders. When alternations in the viscerosomatic nerves or the intestinal walls, it can cause dysfunction in the body, like pelvic pain and abdominal bloating that can cause discomfort to the individual. By figuring out what is causing these issues affecting the gut, the body will begin to heal itself.

 

References

Azpiroz, Fernando, and Juan-R Malagelada. “Abdominal Bloating.” Gastroenterology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Sept. 2005, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16143143/.

Farmer, Adam D, and Qasim Aziz. “Gut Pain & Visceral Hypersensitivity.” British Journal of Pain, SAGE Publications, Feb. 2013, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590155/.

Hills, Ronald D, et al. “Gut Microbiome: Profound Implications for Diet and Disease.” Nutrients, MDPI, 16 July 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6682904/.

Lucarini, Elena, et al. “Deepening the Mechanisms of Visceral Pain Persistence: An Evaluation of the Gut-Spinal Cord Relationship.” Cells, MDPI, 24 July 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464824/.

Perry, C P. “Peripheral Neuropathies Causing Chronic Pelvic Pain.” The Journal of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists, U.S. National Library of Medicine, May 2000, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10806280/.

Pusceddu, Matteo M, and Melanie G Gareau. “Visceral Pain: Gut Microbiota, a New Hope?” Journal of Biomedical Science, BioMed Central, 11 Oct. 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6182804/.

Sikandar, Shafaq, and Anthony H Dickenson. “Visceral Pain: The Ins and Outs, the Ups and Downs.” Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Mar. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3272481/.

Thursby, Elizabeth, and Nathalie Juge. “Introduction to the Human Gut Microbiota.” The Biochemical Journal, Portland Press Ltd., 16 May 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5433529/.

Vermeulen, Wim, et al. “Neuroanatomy of Lower Gastrointestinal Pain Disorders.” World Journal of Gastroenterology, Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited, 28 Jan. 2014, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3921524/.

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A Look At Gut-Brain Dysbiosis & Chronic Inflammation

A Look At Gut-Brain Dysbiosis & Chronic Inflammation

Introduction

One of the unique features of the body is when the gut and nervous systems have this communication partnership where information is transported back and forth throughout the entire body. The data transmitted to the brain and the gut travels through the nerve roots spread throughout the muscles, tissues, and ligaments that control the motor-sensory functions of the body. When the nerve roots become damaged or when there are gut issues affecting the organs in the gut system or even neurological disorders can cause the body to become dysfunctional and result in other matters affecting the muscles in the legs, arms, back, and neck. Today’s article looks at the functionality of the gut-brain axis, how this connection helps the body, and how disorders like inflammation and gut dysbiosis cause problems to the body and the gut-brain axis. Refer patients to certified, skilled providers specializing in gut treatments for individuals that suffer from gut dysbiosis and chronic inflammation. We guide our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is critical for asking insightful questions to our providers. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

 

Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions or concerns, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

05 LePine Advanced Testing the Gut, Brain and Immune-compressed

The Functionality Of The Gut-Brain Axis

 

Have you been experiencing inflammation in your gut? How about feeling tired constantly throughout the entire day? Do any of your joints or muscles ache or feel stiff? Many of these are signs that the gut-brain axis is affected by common factors that the body has encountered. There is evidence that the bi-directional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is connected with the vagus nerve. Research studies have mentioned that the vagus nerve is the modulator of the gut-brain axis and is considered the primary component in the parasympathetic nervous system that is vital for maintaining homeostasis in the body. The vagus nerve helps the body by overseeing every bodily function like heart rate, digestion responses, immune responses, and sending the brain information about the state of the inner organs. The vagus nerve is also involved in the etiology of several metabolic and mental dysfunctions/disorders that the body encounters that affect the muscles and internal organs. Additional research studies have shown that the vagus nerve has anti-inflammatory properties that are activated from the HPA axis and release the hormone cortisol in the body. The macrophages in the spleen make tumor necrosis factor (TNF) a potent inflammation-producing molecule when the vagus nerve is stimulating the TNF production in the spleen, causing it to decrease. At the same time, the survival portion increases in the body.

 

How Does The Gut-Brain Axis Help The Body?

With the bi-directional that the gut and brain have on the body, it is evident that environmental factors like oxidative stress, inflammation, and mood disorders cause changes in the glutamatergic pathways and neurotrophins in the body. Research studies have mentioned that the gut-brain axis helps influence the autonomic nervous system by activating the immune system. When the immune system is activated, the body can generally function like muscle endurance, provide microbiota-derived SCFAs to the blood-brain barrier, and regulate the body’s homeostasis. When the gut-brain axis starts to become dysfunctional, the immune system will begin to increase its production of cortisol which can cause muscle stiffness and spasms to affect the body. When there is inflammation in the gut system, it can cause the muscles in the body to become weak, and it can affect the spine causing low back pain issues to develop over time. Whenever the gut-brain axis is affected by environmental factors, the body will begin to start causing trouble with these symptoms and making the individual miserable.


The Microbiome Being Affected By Inflammation-Video

Are you experiencing muscle stiffness or weakness in your lower back, neck, or other body parts? Have you experienced mood swings or felt anxious constantly? Many of these symptoms you are experiencing are dysfunctional gut-brain axis affecting your body. The video above explained what happens when the gut microbiome is affected by inflammatory factors causing gut dysbiosis and neurological disorders. Research studies have mentioned that the composition between the gut and the brain as they communicate helps shape the body. When a person starts changing their dietary habits and lifestyle, their gut composition will not only be affected, but their nervous system begins to change too. Unwanted factors can cause many disturbances in the body and, if not treated right away, can develop into chronic issues that affect the joints, muscles, and tissues.


Inflammation And Gut-Brain Dysbiosis

 

When the gut-brain system is affected by unwanted factors, various symptoms will begin to rise in the body and start wreaking havoc on specific organs, tissues, muscles, and joints that need the gut-brain axis to keep the body functioning. Not only can inflammation cause these unwanted factors, but gut dysbiosis can also affect the T-cells in the immune system. Research studies have mentioned that when inflammatory markers start to translocate harmful bacteria across the gut-epithelial barrier to the blood-brain barrier, it can contribute to multiple sclerosis on the spine. Additional research studies have found that a stroke-induced gut dysfunction in the body allows the commensal bacteria to infect the peripheral tissue, causing infections like pneumonia and urinary tract infections. When individuals start to figure out what is causing their gut-brain axis to become dysfunctional, they can begin to heal their bodies.

 

Conclusion

The gut and nervous systems have a special bi-directional connection known as the gut-brain axis. The gut-brain axis helps the body function by metabolizing the immune system and regulating homeostasis with the vagus nerve. The vagus nerve is part of the parasympathetic nervous system that allows every bodily function like heart rate, digestion, and immune response while sending information about the state of the inner organs to the brain. The vagus nerve also makes sure that the inner organs are functioning correctly. When unwanted environmental factors like inflammation or gut dysbiosis start to affect the gut-brain axis, it can wreak havoc on the internal organs and cause the body to become dysfunctional. When people notice that their body becomes dysfunctional, they will find treatments available to relieve these issues in their bodies and continue on their health and wellness journey.

 

References

Appleton, Jeremy. “The Gut-Brain Axis: Influence of Microbiota on Mood and Mental Health.” Integrative Medicine (Encinitas, Calif.), InnoVision Health Media Inc., Aug. 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469458/.

Bonaz, Bruno, et al. “Vagus Nerve Stimulation at the Interface of Brain-Gut Interactions.” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1 Aug. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6671930/.

Breit, Sigrid, et al. “Vagus Nerve as Modulator of the Brain-Gut Axis in Psychiatric and Inflammatory Disorders.” Frontiers in Psychiatry, Frontiers Media S.A., 13 Mar. 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5859128/.

Gwak, Min-Gyu, and Sun-Young Chang. “Gut-Brain Connection: Microbiome, Gut Barrier, and Environmental Sensors.” Immune Network, The Korean Association of Immunologists, 16 June 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263213/.

Günther, Claudia, et al. “The Gut-Brain Axis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Current and Future Perspectives.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, MDPI, 18 Aug. 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396333/.

Stopińska, Katarzyna, et al. “The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis as a Key to Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Mini Review.” Journal of Clinical Medicine, MDPI, 10 Oct. 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8539144/.

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A Look At Autonomic Neuropathy & Gut Disorders

A Look At Autonomic Neuropathy & Gut Disorders

Introduction

The body has many nerves that intertwine and branch out from the spinal cord in the central nervous system. These nerves provide many functions that the body needs to work correctly, from motor function on the arms, legs, and neck to sensory functions like perceiving how much light comes into the eyes, that sense of fullness in the gut system, and when something is touching the skin. The body needs these nerves for everyday function and when a person feels pain from accidents and injuries. When there are factors that cause nerve damage or even gut issues that are internally affecting the body, it can cause many symptoms and cause a person to feel gloomy. Today’s article looks at the parasympathetic nervous system, how it affects the gut microbiota, and how autonomic neuropathy disrupts the gut system in many individuals. Refer patients to certified, skilled providers specializing in gut treatments for individuals that suffer from autonomic neuropathy. We guide our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is critical for asking insightful questions to our providers. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

 

Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions or concerns, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

13 - Lombard Microbial Involvement in Neurodegeneration and Neuropsychiatry-compressed

What Is The Parasympathetic Nervous System?

 

Have you experienced gut issues affecting your body? How about feeling dizzy or faint when standing up? Does it seem difficult to adjust your eyesight from dark to light? Or have you experienced gut inflammation? These signs and symptoms are usually affected when the parasympathetic nerves are damaged and causing gut issues in the body. The parasympathetic nervous system. as research has defined it, conserves the body’s energy to be used for a later date while regulating bodily functions. These nerves help the body go into a “resting” condition that allows the body to work in a less stressful environment than the sympathetic nervous system, which drives the “fight or flight” response. The parasympathetic nerves also help with the GI tract, as additional research shows the parasympathetic nervous system helps exert excitatory and inhibitory GI control and motility in the intestines. The parasympathetic nerves and the gut microbiota are connected as they help influence the body’s homeostasis.

 

How Does It Affect The Gut Microbiota?

So the brain and the gut are connected to the body as they help send the information back and forth to provide the body’s homeostasis and immune function in preventing diseases. So for the parasympathetic nervous system and how it affects the gut microbiota, it’s all due to the vagus nerve that keeps the gut microbiota functioning and doing its job to support the body. Research studies have shown that the vagus nerve is the primary component of the parasympathetic nervous system. The vagus nerve helps with the bi-directional communication between the brain and the gut system by overseeing the crucial bodily functions. Some of the tasks that the parasympathetic nervous system does for the gut microbiota include:

  • Mood control
  • Immune response
  • Heart rate
  • Digestion
  • Influences gastrointestinal homeostasis regulation
  • Connect emotional and cognitive areas of the brain

 


An Overview On The Parasympathetic Nerves-Video

Feeling inflammatory effects inside your gut? How about feeling dizzy by just standing for a little bit? Do you have difficulty eating or have a loss of appetite? Many of these signs of parasympathetic nerves are affected, causing abnormalities in the gut microbiota. The video above explains what the parasympathetic nervous system does and how it plays its role in the entire body. The parasympathetic nervous system also has a partnership with the gut microbiota. Research studies mentioned that the interaction between the parasympathetic nervous system and the gut microbiome ensures the proper maintenance of homeostasis and cognitive functions for the body. The gut-brain axis helps promote optimal bodily function while ensuring that the motor-sensory parts are doing their jobs.


How Autonomic Neuropathy Affects The Gut System

 

Injuries affecting the gut microbiota and the parasympathetic nervous system can cause gut inflammation in the intestines and nerve damage to the nervous system. This is known as autonomic neuropathy, and research shows that this type of neuropathy causes body and gut issues like diabetes and gastrointestinal motility and contributes to other GI symptoms. Other research studies have found that autonomic neuropathy can alter the gut microbiota’s homeostasis regulation. When this happens, the body will start to have various symptoms affecting each organ and making them dysfunctional. The body will develop more symptoms when the gut microbiota becomes affected. These symptoms cause a decrease in vagal outflow or an increase in sympathetic activity, which will be associated with a slow decreased gastrointestinal motility.

 

Conclusion

The gut and nervous systems have a bi-directional communication that helps provide the body with proper immune support and metabolizing homeostasis for functionality. The nerves in the nervous system are branched out from the spinal cord and help offer many functions to the arms, organs, legs, and muscle tissues. The parasympathetic nerves in the nervous system help the body rest and digest the nutrients provided to the body. When the nerves or the gut suffer from damage, it can cause various problems that cause dysfunction to the motor-sensory functions of the body. When this happens, many individuals can find different treatments to restore body functions to the gut and the parasympathetic nerves and reduce the symptoms that come with it.

 

References

Breit, Sigrid, et al. “Vagus Nerve as Modulator of the Brain-Gut Axis in Psychiatric and Inflammatory Disorders.” Frontiers in Psychiatry, Frontiers Media S.A., 13 Mar. 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5859128/.

Browning, Kirsteen N, and R Alberto Travagli. “Central Nervous System Control of Gastrointestinal Motility and Secretion and Modulation of Gastrointestinal Functions.” Comprehensive Physiology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Oct. 2014, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4858318/.

Kornum, Ditte S, et al. “Assessment of Gastrointestinal Autonomic Dysfunction: Present and Future Perspectives.” Journal of Clinical Medicine, MDPI, 31 Mar. 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037288/.

Mayer, Emeran A. “Gut Feelings: The Emerging Biology of Gut-Brain Communication.” Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 13 July 2011, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3845678/.

Tindle, Jacob, and Prasanna Tadi. “Neuroanatomy, Parasympathetic Nervous System – Statpearls – NCBI Bookshelf.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 5 Nov. 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK553141/.

Tougas, G. “The Autonomic Nervous System in Functional Bowel Disorders.” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology = Journal Canadien De Gastroenterologie, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Mar. 1999, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10202203/.

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Traumatic Brain Injury Affecting The Gut

Traumatic Brain Injury Affecting The Gut

Introduction

The gut microbiome is “the second brain” in the body as it helps regulate homeostasis and metabolize the immune system for functionality and to keep the body in motion. The brain is part of the nervous system, providing neuron signals constantly traveling all over the body. The brain and the gut have a communication partnership where they send information back and forth for the body to function normally. When the body gets injured, either the brain, the gut, or both can be affected, causing dysfunction and unwanted symptoms that can cause other issues to affect the other systems in the body. One of these injuries can affect the brain in a traumatic way, which can disturb the signaling to the gut microbiota and affect an individual’s quality of life. Today’s article looks at a traumatic brain injury known as a concussion, its symptoms, and how it affects the gut-brain axis in the body. Refer patients to certified, skilled providers specializing in gut treatments for individuals that suffered from concussions. We guide our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is critical for asking insightful questions to our providers. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

 

Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions or concerns, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

 

14 - Lipski Dietary Modulation of the Microbiome

What Is A Concussion?

Have you been headaches that pop out of nowhere and affect you daily? Have you been experiencing leaky gut or other gut disorder issues causing problems? Do you have trouble concentrating on the simple tasks at hand? Many of these symptoms are signs that you might be suffering from a concussion. Research studies have defined a concussion as a transient disturbance that traumatically induces brain function in the body. Concussions can vary depending on the severity of the injury. When a person suffers from a concussion, the neurotransmitters get disrupted as the brain’s electrolytes go through neurological dysfunction, and blood glucose metabolism decreases cerebral blood flow. Other research studies have found that a concussion does an axial rotation to the brain, which results in the brain jiggling and causes whiplash to the neck. This disruption will cause a biochemical injury that either alters the blood glucose metabolism or can cause derangement of the adenine nucleotides of the nervous system.

 

Its Symptoms

Research studies have found that when a person suffers from a concussion, the symptoms in its acute phase can drastically change and evolve into a chronic situation over time. Concussions usually occur in individuals that play a contact sport, where they bump each other in the heads, auto accidents that causes severe injuries that affect the neck and brain, or even a simple blow to the head. Other research studies have stated that the symptoms of a concussion can include:

  • Blurry vision
  • Headaches
  • Dizzyness
  • Mood changes
  • Light sensitivity
  • Concentration and memory complications

Additional research studies have mentioned that neuronal dysfunction can occur when a person suffers from a concussion as there are ionic shifts, impaired connectivity to the brain, and changes in the neurotransmitters from completing their jobs to provide sensory-motor functions to the entire body. When this happens, not only does the nervous system gets affected, but the gut system gets affected as well.

 


An Overview Of Leaky Gut & Concussions-Video

Do gut disorder symptoms seem to be affecting your quality of life? Have you become sensitive to light? Have you felt muscle stiffness in your neck? Or have you been suffering from frequent headaches? If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it might be due to a concussion affecting your gut microbiota. The video above explains how a concussion and a leaky gut are linked. In an average functioning body, the gut and the brain have a bi-directional connection as they help send the neuron signals to each of the body systems and muscle tissues that make the body move. When traumatic forces like a concussion affect the brain, it can disrupt and change the neurotransmitters signals that can cause gut disorders in the microbiota. When gut disorders affect the gut microbiota, it can cascade a series of inflammatory effects that can affect the body’s homeostasis and immune function. Experiencing these symptoms in the body can drastically affect a person’s mood and quality of life if it is not taken care of immediately.


How The Gut-Brain Axis Is Affected By A Concussion?

Since the gut-brain axis has a communication partnership, this axis helps the body’s immunity, homeostasis, and metabolism function. When a concussion starts to affect the gut-brain axis, research studies have shown that the communication pathways are affected in the gut-brain axis as tit incorporates the afferent and efferent signals. The signals involved in the gut-brain axis include the hormones, neurons, and immune pathways that can result in chronic gastrointestinal dysfunction and disability to the body. Since the gut helps keep the body functional through homeostasis, the brain helps the neuron signals provide sensory functions. With a concussion, these signals are disrupted, affecting the body’s functionality and causing a change in a person’s mood.

 

Conclusion

Overall the gut-brain axis provides functionality to the body by maintaining the homeostasis and metabolism of the immune system. A person’s involvement in a traumatic accident can lead to brain injuries like a concussion that can impair the gut and brain relationship. A concussion can become severe when it is not treated right away and can affect a person’s quality of life in their health and wellness journey.

 

References

Ferry, Benjamin, and Alexei DeCastro. “Concussion – Statpearls – NCBI Bookshelf.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 19 Jan. 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537017/.

Giza, Christopher C., and David A. Hovda. “The Neurometabolic Cascade of Concussion.” Journal of Athletic Training, National Athletic Trainers’ Association, Inc., Sept. 2001, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC155411/.

Mann, Aneetinder, et al. “Concussion Diagnosis and Management: Knowledge and Attitudes of Family Medicine Residents.” Canadian Family Physician Medecin De Famille Canadien, College of Family Physicians of Canada, June 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5471087/.

Staff, Mayo Clinic. “Concussion.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 17 Feb. 2022, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/concussion/symptoms-causes/syc-20355594.

Tator, Charles H. “Concussions and Their Consequences: Current Diagnosis, Management and Prevention.” CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal = Journal De L’Association Medicale Canadienne, Canadian Medical Association, 6 Aug. 2013, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3735746/.

Zhu, Caroline S, et al. “A Review of Traumatic Brain Injury and the Gut Microbiome: Insights into Novel Mechanisms of Secondary Brain Injury and Promising Targets for Neuroprotection.” Brain Sciences, MDPI, 19 June 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6025245/.

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The Gut-Skin Connection On Relieving Psoriasis

The Gut-Skin Connection On Relieving Psoriasis

Introduction

The skin and the gut have a unique connection. The gut system is home to trillions of microorganisms that help metabolize the body’s homeostasis while keeping the immune system functioning for the body to be working correctly. The skin has its set of functions as well as it is the largest organ and helps protect the body from external factors from harm. When these disruptive factors start to affect either the gut or the skin, it can lead to numerous conditions that cause the body to be dysfunctional. When the gut becomes affected by these disruptive factors, it can cause gut disorders and inflammation, affecting the skin and causing disruptions. Today’s article will discuss a skin disorder known as psoriasis and how the gut-skin connection is affected by psoriasis. Referring patients to certified, skilled providers who specialize in gastroenterology treatments. We provide guidance to our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is critical for asking insightful questions to our providers. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

 

Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions or concerns, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

16B - Smith Module IV GI Health and The Skin Part I

What Is Psoriasis?

 

Do you have severe itching along your face and arms? Do certain foods seem to aggravate your digestive tract or skin? Or have you experienced any gut disorders that are affecting your wellbeing? Many of these symptoms are signs of inflammatory issues affecting the gut and are associated with a skin disorder known as psoriasis. Research studies have defined psoriasis as a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is an autoimmune process in which abnormal differentiation and hyper-proliferation of the epidermis occur with redness and scaling. Psoriasis affects about 2% of the general population in the world and is an autoimmune process driven by abnormally activated helper T cells. Additional studies have mentioned that psoriasis is sustained by inflammation that causes the keratinocyte proliferation to be uncontrollable and has dysfunctional differentiation. The inflammatory pathways activate psoriasis in different body locations, causing the individual to become miserable because they are itching and becoming miserable.


An Overview Of Psoriasis-Video

Do you have scaly, patchy lesions in certain areas of your body? Do you feel any gut issues affecting you constantly? Do you feel inflammatory effects disrupting your gut and skin? Many of these conditions are signs that you are experiencing gut disorders associated with a skin disorder known as psoriasis. The video above explains how the gut and skin are affected due to psoriasis and how to heal it naturally. Research studies have mentioned that when the individual is suffering from psoriasis-prone skin, it is due to the alternation of the gut microbiota. When a person scratches the area where psoriasis is formed, it might damage the skin and cause the bacteria to colonize while invoking inflammation to occur in the affected area. Additional research has found that gut disorders like IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) and psoriasis are interlinked due to the increased interaction of inflammatory receptor pathogens disrupting the body’s immune cells.


How The Gut-Skin Connection Is Affected By Psoriasis

 

The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that help metabolize the body’s homeostasis while regulating the immune system. Since the body inhabits microorganisms in various locations, including the skin and gut, it helps maintain homeostasis. The skin helps protect the body from external factors and has bidirectional communication with the gut system. However, like with any autoimmune process, it always starts with the gut. Research studies have mentioned that psoriasis is a multifactorial chronic skin disease that infiltrates the body’s immune cells, causing an increase in skin inflammation and making a person’s life miserable. With the gut system also being inflicted by inflammatory markers, many suffering individuals will experience IBD, SIBO, and other gut disorders that can disrupt the body. Additional information has shown that changes in the microflora in the gut-skin axis from genetic or environmental factors can contribute to various diseases. But when these factors begin to cause an increase in inflammatory markers in the body, it can affect a person’s quality of life through habits that make them miserable.

 

Conclusion

The body needs the gut and skin to maintain homeostasis and metabolize the immune system. The gut microbiota helps transport the nutrients that the body needs and regulates the body’s immunity, while the skin protects the body from outside factors while being the largest organ. The gut and skin have a bi-directional connection that allows them to keep the body from suffering from dysbiosis. When disruptive factors affect either the gut or the skin, it can lead to many disorders and make a person’s life miserable. The skin suffers from a condition known as psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease that causes itchy, patchy lesions that can affect the areas around the body. Psoriasis is associated with gut disorders, as many factors aggravate the inflammatory markers and can be a nuisance if not treated early. Incorporating small changes that benefit both the gut and skin health can help relieve the individual from psoriasis and bring back their quality of life.

 

References

Chen, Lihui, et al. “Skin and Gut Microbiome in Psoriasis: Gaining Insight into the Pathophysiology of It and Finding Novel Therapeutic Strategies.” Frontiers in Microbiology, Frontiers Media S.A., 15 Dec. 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769758/.

De Francesco, Maria Antonia, and Arnaldo Caruso. “The Gut Microbiome in Psoriasis and Crohn’s Disease: Is Its Perturbation a Common Denominator for Their Pathogenesis?” Vaccines, MDPI, 5 Feb. 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8877283/.

Ellis, Samantha R, et al. “The Skin and Gut Microbiome and Its Role in Common Dermatologic Conditions.” Microorganisms, MDPI, 11 Nov. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6920876/.

Nair, Pragya A, and Talel Badri. “Psoriasis.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 6 Apr. 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK448194/.

Olejniczak-Staruch, Irmina, et al. “Alterations of the Skin and Gut Microbiome in Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, MDPI, 13 Apr. 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069836/.

Rendon, Adriana, and Knut Schäkel. “Psoriasis Pathogenesis and Treatment.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, MDPI, 23 Mar. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6471628/.

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A Healthy GI Can Relieve Atopic Dermatitis

A Healthy GI Can Relieve Atopic Dermatitis

Introduction

The skin is the largest organ in the body and encounters numerous factors that can either benefit or harm the body. The skin helps protect the organs and intestines in the gut system, keeps the musculoskeletal system structure functional, and even helps the nervous system send out signals for motor-sensory functions to the rest of the body. The skin is associated with the gut system as the gut microbiota host trillions of beneficial gut flora that send out nutrients to help promote tissue growth, improve the body’s immunity, and metabolize skin health by protecting it from disruptive pathogens. When these pathogens cause inflammatory issues in the gut system, it can affect the body’s skin, brain, and immune health by making them dysfunctional. Today’s article will look at a skin condition known as atopic dermatitis, how it affects the gut-skin system, and what treatments are available for relieving gut issues and atopic dermatitis in individuals. Referring patients to certified, skilled providers who specialize in gastroenterology treatments. We provide guidance to our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is critical for asking insightful questions to our providers. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

 

Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions or concerns, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

16A - Smith Module IV GI Health and The Skin Part I

What Is Atopic Dermatitis?

 

Have you experienced inflammation around your gut or in certain areas of your skin? Do issues like SIBO, IBD, leaky gut, or bloating become more frequent? Do certain foods trigger inflammatory markers in your skin and gut? The numerous signs and symptoms are due to a skin disorder known as atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis or eczema is a pruritic, hereditary skin disorder. The lifetime prevalence is 10% to 20%, with many cases starting as a baby and rising to 20% to 40% as adults continue to have atopic dermatitis. Research studies have defined atopic dermatitis as one of the most common skin diseases that cause chronic inflammation in the skin. The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis is both complex and multifactorial. It involves the elements of barrier dysfunction, alterations in cell-mediated immune responses, IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, and environmental factors that cause flare-ups. Additional research studies have mentioned that the pathology of atopic dermatitis is being looked at as the skin’s structural abnormalities and immune dysregulation play their roles as this condition progress. Other genetic changes have also been identified, altering the skin’s barrier function, resulting in an atopic dermatitis phenotype. The imbalance of Th2 to Th1 cytokines is observed as it alters cell-mediated immune responses. Atopic dermatitis can promote IgE-mediated hypersensitivity in the skin as part of its development. This can also be due to the environmental factors that be the causing development of atopic dermatitis.

 

How Does It Affect The Gut-Skin Connection?

Since atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, many factors do come to play in its development. For example, food allergies cause atopic dermatitis in 25% to 50% of children. Some of the food allergens that are commonly linked to atopic dermatitis include:

  • Eggs
  • Soy
  • Milk
  • Wheat
  • Fish
  • Shellfish
  • Peanuts

One of the other factors that can cause the development of atopic dermatitis is gut issues. Research studies have shown that any alterations in the gut microbiome due to atopic dermatitis affect the immune system balance in the body. When the gut microbiome becomes altered, it affects metabolite production and reduces the body’s immune system. When bacteria overgrowth in the GI tract, it has been suggested as a causative factor in allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis. Another factor is when individuals consume trans fats, which increase the development of atopic dermatitis since they interfere with the metabolism and use of essential fatty acids.


The Microbiome Of Atopic Dermatitis-Video

Have you experienced inflammation in your digestive tract or particular areas of your skin? Does your body feel fatigued constantly? Do you have any gut issues or disorders that are affecting your health? Most of these symptoms are signs that you are experiencing atopic dermatitis caused by gut issues. Research studies have found that various factors can trigger atopic dermatitis, affect the immune system, and disrupt the gut microbiota. The video above explains the microbiome in atopic dermatitis and how it affects the gut, skin, and the entire body. Luckily there are available treatments to relieve atopic dermatitis and gut disorders from wreaking havoc on the body.


Treatments For Relieving Atopic Dermatitis & The Gut

 

When a person begins to find treatments for relieving atopic dermatitis usually involves:

  • Early diagnosis.
  • Skin barrier function support.
  • Mitigation of cutaneous inflammation.
  • Concomitant risk stratification

Another way that many individuals can alleviate atopic dermatitis is with a healthy GI tract. This will help many individuals suffering from a food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and environmental allergies to relieve atopic dermatitis from progressing further. A study showed that probiotics and prebiotics are essential in preventing food allergies and eczema. Probiotics and prebiotics help replenish the beneficial bacteria in the gut and regulate the immune system. This prevents atopic dermatitis from stopping progressing and restor the body back.

 

Conclusion

Many factors cause atopic dermatitis progression to become severe, as it is crucial to find the root cause of the flare-ups and alleviate them at the source. Overall having gut issues associated with atopic dermatitis is no laughing matter. When the gut microbiome is being affected by inflammatory disorders, it can disrupt the immune system and cause atopic dermatitis to develop on the skin. Incorporating probiotics and prebiotics can help replenish the gut bacteria and figure out what causes the inflammatory symptoms to spike up from certain foods will benefit the gut and the skin to become healthier.

 

References

Fang, Zhifeng, et al. “Gut Microbiota, Probiotics, and Their Interactions in Prevention and Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis: A Review.” Frontiers in Immunology, Frontiers Media S.A., 14 July 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317022/.

Kapur, Sandeep, et al. “Atopic Dermatitis.” Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology : Official Journal of the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, BioMed Central, 12 Sept. 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6157251/.

Kim, Jung Eun, and Hei Sung Kim. “Microbiome of the Skin and Gut in Atopic Dermatitis (AD): Understanding the Pathophysiology and Finding Novel Management Strategies.” Journal of Clinical Medicine, MDPI, 2 Apr. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6518061/.

Kolb, Logan, and Sarah J Ferrer-Bruker. “Atopic Dermatitis – Statpearls – NCBI Bookshelf.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 13 Aug. 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK448071/.

Lee, So Yeon, et al. “Microbiome in the Gut-Skin Axis in Atopic Dermatitis.” Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research, The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology; The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease, July 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6021588/.

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The Gut Skin Connection Affecting Acne

The Gut Skin Connection Affecting Acne

Introduction

The body is always going through many factors that constantly test the durability that can affect the entire microbiome itself. The gut helps the body’s homeostasis by metabolizing the nutrients that provide the energy for functionality. The gut system is home to trillions of microorganisms that communicate to the brain systemendocrine systemimmune system, and skin to ensure that it is healthy. When disruptive factors enter the gut system, they can cause various issues that can make the dysfunctional body while affecting its communication with the body’s axis. Today’s article focuses on a skin condition that everyone has suffered in their lives known as acne and how the gut-skin axis is being affected by acne. Referring patients to certified, skilled providers who specialize in gastroenterology treatments. We provide guidance to our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is critical for asking insightful questions to our providers. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

 

Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions or concerns, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

16A - Smith Module IV GI Health and The Skin Part I

What Is Acne Vulgaris?

 

Have you noticed bumps along your face, especially in the nose, forehead, and cheek regions? How about inflammatory reactions that are affecting your skin? Do issues like GERD, IBS, leaky gut, or SIBO affect your gut? Most of these issues are due to disruptive factors that affect the gut-skin connection and cause a skin condition known as acne vulgaris. Everybody suffers from acne when they are young, and it is a common condition with follicular papules or comedones and inflammatory papules and pustules. Research studies have shown that acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder triggered by many factors that can cause it to become aggravated and inflamed. Some of the contributing factors that can cause acne vulgaris to form due to the following:

  • Infection (Propionibacterium acnes)
  • Tissue inflammation
  • Plugging of hair follicles due to epidermal hyperproliferation
  • Hormone imbalance
  • Endocrine disorders
  • Excess sun exposure

Other research studies have shown that other factors like gut disorders can also affect the development of acne vulgaris. Acne vulgaris can be associated with the emotional factors that affect the brain and the gut’s inflammatory factors as they go hand in hand. When a person becomes stressed or anxious, their skin will flare up and develop acne around some skin regions. Additional studies have mentioned that emotional factors like stress and anxiety can alter the gut microbiota and increase intestinal permeability. When gut disorders start to contribute to skin inflammation, it can aggravate acne to develop and form on the skin.


Gut Health & Acne- Video

Have you experienced gut disorders that seem to affect your quality of life? Have you noticed that particular foods you consume are not sitting well in your gut system? How about feeling overly stressed and anxious that acne forms around your face? The video above explains how the gut microbiome affects a person when making dietary changes that can provide beneficial results to the gut microbiota. Research studies have found that the intestinal microbiota is essential for forming acne lesions while being responsible for proper immunity and defense of the microorganisms. The GI tract and acne condition are closely associated because they provide the neuroendocrine and immune functions to the body. 


The Gut-Skin Axis & How It Affects Acne

 

Since the gut is the host to trillions of bacteria, its primary job is to maintain constant communication with the skin to dampen unnecessary inflammatory markers that can cause the skin to break out. Research studies have found that the gut-skin axis, when affected by acne, produces significantly higher metabolites that generate ROS (reactive oxygen species) and induce inflammation in both the gut and skin. Additional research has shown that the gut microbiome plays an essential role in skin disorders and vice versa. When changes affect either the gut or the skin, it can drastically change a person’s outcome in life. Say, for instance, dietary habits that cause inflammation in the gut. This is due to processed foods that cause the gut to become inflamed and make the skin begin the development of acne in different portions of the skin. Research shows that the gut microbiome can vastly influence the immune system by regulating it. This builds a tolerance to dietary changes in the gut to promote acne-free skin. So incorporating a low-glycemic-load diet has been linked to improved acne, possibly through gut changes or attenuation of insulin levels.

 

Conclusion

Overall, the gut plays a massive role in the body in its homeostasis as it helps the body metabolize the nutrients to keep it functioning and moving. The gut microbiota also has bidirectional communication with the skin as common skin disorders like acne tend to show up. Acne is very common amongst individuals, especially in younger individuals, as it can affect their moods and cause changes to their mental health and their gut health. Incorporating small changes like eating healthy food, maintaining a stress-free environment, and even exercising can help not only lower gut inflammation but also clear up the skin from acne.

 

References

Bowe, Whitney P, and Alan C Logan. “Acne Vulgaris, Probiotics and the Gut-Brain-Skin Axis – Back to the Future?” Gut Pathogens, BioMed Central, 31 Jan. 2011, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3038963/.

Chilicka, Karolina, et al. “Microbiome and Probiotics in Acne Vulgaris-A Narrative Review.” Life (Basel, Switzerland), MDPI, 15 Mar. 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8953587/.

De Pessemier, Britta, et al. “Gut-Skin Axis: Current Knowledge of the Interrelationship between Microbial Dysbiosis and Skin Conditions.” Microorganisms, MDPI, 11 Feb. 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916842/.

Lee, Young Bok, et al. “Potential Role of the Microbiome in Acne: A Comprehensive Review.” Journal of Clinical Medicine, MDPI, 7 July 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6678709/.

Salem, Iman, et al. “The Gut Microbiome as a Major Regulator of the Gut-Skin Axis.” Frontiers in Microbiology, Frontiers Media S.A., 10 July 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048199/.

Sutaria, Amita H, et al. “Acne Vulgaris.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 8 May 2022, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459173/.

Disclaimer

Want Clearer Skin? Take Care Of Your Gut

Want Clearer Skin? Take Care Of Your Gut

Introduction

As everyone knows, the gut helps the body metabolize nutrients and vitamins that it needs to function correctly. The gut system also allows the body’s immunity to perform while staying in communication with the brain. The gut helps sends signals back and forth to regulate the body’s hormones signals and other beneficial substances that the body requires. The gut is also in communication with the largest organ in the body, which is the skin. When intolerable factors start to wreck the gut and cause chaos inside the gut system, it disrupts the brain signals in the nervous system and can also take a toll on the skin. Today’s article will focus on a skin condition known as rosacea, how it affects the gut system, and what is the gut-skin connection. Referring patients to certified, skilled providers who specialize in gastroenterology treatments. We provide guidance to our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is critical for asking insightful questions to our providers. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

 

Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions or concerns, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

16A - Smith Module IV GI Health and The Skin Part I

What Is Rosacea?

 

Have you felt any gut disorders like IBS, leaky gut, or GERD affecting your mid-section? How about redness around your face, especially the nose and cheek areas? Does your skin seem to feel tender to the touch in certain areas? Most of these symptoms are related to a chronic inflammatory disease known as rosacea. It is usually indicated by genetic and environmental components that can trigger rosacea initiation on the skin. Rosacea is generally aggravated by dysregulation of the body’s innate and adaptive immune system. Research studies have mentioned that rosacea is usually developed by lymphatic dilation and blood vessels exposed to extreme temperatures, spices, or alcohol which causes rosacea to affect the cheeks and nose. Not only that, but genetics, immune reaction, microorganisms, and environmental factors lead to various mediators such as keratinocytes, endothelial cells, mast cells, macrophages, T helper type 1 (TH1), and TH17 cells.

 

How Does It Affect The Gut System?

Since rosacea is developed through exposure to high temperatures, spices, or alcohol, research studies have shown that particular food and drinks cause the inflammatory cytokines to become triggered in the face. Additionally, many trigger factors can directly communicate to the cutaneous nervous system; neurovascular and neuro-immune active neuropeptides are lead to the manifestation of rosacea lesions. Some of the other triggers that can cause rosacea to develop is an unhealthy gut system. A study showed that more than 50% had low stomach acid among patients who had both rosacea and dyspepsia. The bacteria H.pylori resides in the stomach and has been recognized to trigger inflammation and gastrin-induced flushing, thus causing rosacea. Additional studies have mentioned that rosacea individuals will experience some gut disorders to occur. Since the gut system can succumb to various factors, it can affect the gut’s composition and trigger rosacea. Since the gut microbiota has influenced the body’s homeostasis, it can also influence the skin. When there are factors that trigger the intestinal barrier of the gut, it can affect the skin, causing the inflammatory cytokines to proceed with the development of rosacea.


Uncovering The Gut-Skin Connection-Video

 

Does your skin feel flushed due to extreme temperatures or consuming spicy food? Have you experienced gut disorders like SIBO, GERD, or leaky gut? Has your skin seemed to break out even more than it should? Your skin could be affected by your gut microbiota, as the video above shows what the gut-skin connection is and how they work with each other. Research studies have shown that since the gut microbiome is the key regulator of the body’s immune system, it plays a vital role in various skin disorders. This means that when environmental factors affect the gut’s microbiome, it also affects the skin through dysbiosis. 


What Is The Gut-Skin Connection?

 

As stated earlier, the gut system is home to trillions of microorganisms that help metabolize the body’s homeostasis, including the largest organ, the skin. Research studies have found that when the gut microbial and the skin communicate with each other. It creates a bidirectional connection. The gut microbiome is also an essential mediator of inflammation in the gut and affects the skin. When there are factors like insulin resistance, imbalances in the sex hormones, gut inflammation, and microbial dysbiosis wrecking the gut system, the effects can cause the pathology of many inflammatory disorders to affect the skin. Any changes to the gut can also affect the skin as the gut consumes food to be biotransformed into nutrients that the body needs. But when food allergies and sensitivities affect the gut, the skin also gets involved, causing skin disorders like rosacea.

 

Conclusion

Overall the gut makes sure that the body is functioning correctly by metabolizing nutrients from consumed foods. The gut system has a connection to not only the brain and immune system but also the skin. The gut-skin connection goes hand in hand as factors that affect the gut can also affect the skin in developing skin disorders like rosacea. When a person is suffering from gut disorders, their skin is also damaged by factors like stress, food sensitivities, and skin disorders that can become a nuisance. This can be alleviated through small changes like reducing stress, eating healthy foods, and exercising, which are beneficial for relieving gut and skin disorders for individuals who want to get their health back.

 

References

Daou, Hala, et al. “Rosacea and the Microbiome: A Systematic Review.” Dermatology and Therapy, Springer Healthcare, Feb. 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859152/.

De Pessemier, Britta, et al. “Gut-Skin Axis: Current Knowledge of the Interrelationship between Microbial Dysbiosis and Skin Conditions.” Microorganisms, MDPI, 11 Feb. 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916842/.

Farshchian, Mehdi, and Steven Daveluy. “Rosacea.” In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing, 30 Dec. 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557574/.

Kim, Hei Sung. “Microbiota in Rosacea.” American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, Springer International Publishing, Sept. 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584533/.

Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer, et al. “Rosacea: A Clinical Review.” Dermatology Reports, PAGEPress Publications, Pavia, Italy, 23 June 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5134688/.

Salem, Iman, et al. “The Gut Microbiome as a Major Regulator of the Gut-Skin Axis.” Frontiers in Microbiology, Frontiers Media S.A., 10 July 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048199/.

Disclaimer

Gut-Brain Axis: Gut Disorders & Metainflammation

Gut-Brain Axis: Gut Disorders & Metainflammation

Introduction

The gut system is home to trillions of beneficial bacteria that helps biotransformed food into nutrients for the body to function correctly. The gut is also in constant communication with the brain as the neuron signals are in a bi-directional wavelength that helps move the nutrients to their designated areas in the body. These designated areas help the body as well, as they have their own set of instructions to work correctly while the body is in motion. When gut disorders like metainflammation start to disrupt the signals going back and forth between the brain and gut, it can cause various issues that can cause the body to become dysfunctional and progress into chronic inflammation. Today’s article discusses what metainflammation does to the gut-brain axis and how inflammasomes play their role in the gut-liver axis in the body. Referring patients to qualified, skilled providers who specialize in gastroenterology treatments. We provide guidance to our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is critical for asking insightful questions to our providers. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

 

Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions or concerns, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

15 - LaValle GI Therapies

Metainflammation Affecting The Gut-Brain Axis

 

Have you been noticing an increase in food allergies or intolerances affecting you? How about feeling digestive problems rise on multiple occasions? Many of these symptoms are due to gut disorders like metainflammation, which can also affect the gut-brain axis in the body. Research studies have mentioned that the nervous system directly influences the gut through endocrine mediators interacting with microbial receptors. When metainflammation begins to affect the gut, it becomes the result of various gut dysbiosis like:

  • Increased sleep and mood disturbances
  • Fatigue
  • Decreased performance and exercise ability
  • Nutrient deficiencies – vitamin D, B vitamins
  • Thyroid imbalance

Other research studies have shown that since inflammation is a common factor for various disorders affecting the body, it can do much damage when the inflammatory cytokines affect the gut-brain axis and the immune system. Meta inflammation causes a decrease in intestinal absorption and contractility, but it can also increase the defective tight junctions and intestinal permeability. This causes gut issues like Crohn’s and celiac disease to rise, causing increased insulin and immune dysregulation and brain issues like sleep, cognition, mood disturbances, anxiety, and psychiatric disorders.


An Overview On The Gut-Brain-Axis-Video

Have you been experiencing weight gain around your mid section? How about an increase in memory and cognitive decline? Have you felt a rise in chronic inflammation or immune problems? All these symptoms are signs that you could be experiencing metainflammation that affects the gut-brain axis in your body. The video above explains the gut-brain axis and how neurodevelopment disorders can affect the brain. Research studies have found that a mixture of dysbiosis and inflammation affects the gut, and it can cause the brain to be linked to many neurological disorders. With the bi-directional connection that the brain and gut have, many factors are constantly challenging both microbiomes that can progress inflammatory markers to rise in the body.


What Are Inflammasomes?

 

Inflammasomes are a family of proteins in charge of initiating the inflammatory process during the innate immune response. Inflammasomes are defensive microbes that cause inflammatory effects against infections and can even affect the gut-liver axis in the body if it turns chronic. What inflammasomes does is that they help pattern recognition receptors to know when the body is feeling stressed or in danger, as they are significant actors in the metaflammation construct. Research studies have shown that inflammasomes in the body can help secrete toxins into the invading microbes causing gut disorders.

 

How Does Inflammasome Affect The Gut-Liver Axis?

The gut-liver axis is connected with the intestines via bile acid metabolism. Bile acid dysregulation can lead to intestinal dysbiosis, which allows the gram-negative erogenous pathogenic bacteria and LPS to enter the liver. When this happens, it triggers hepatic inflammation via inflammasomes. Research studies have shown that chronic inflammation affecting the gut-liver axis can cause the inflammasomes to affect the epithelial wall integrity and even induce pro-inflammatory cytokine production, causing more issues in the body. In contrast, the NLRP3 inflammasome primarily induces IL‐1beta by causing bile acids to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages. This induces bacterial translocation to allow pathogens, i.e., Bacteroidetes (Gram‐negative bacteria) and LPS, into the liver.

 

Conclusion

Overall, the gut-brain axis allows bi-directional communication to the entire body as the gut help regulates the metabolic function of the body. At the same time, the brain controls the signals and processes that the body encounters. When chronic issues like metainflammation or chronic inflammasomes begin to affect the gut, it can disrupt the bidirectional communication to the brain, causing the body to become dysfunctional. Incorporating small changes to confident life choices like adding supplements and nutraceuticals to dampen inflammation, eating healthier, and exercising can help relieve the gut. When many individuals make these small changes in their health and wellness journey, they can feel themselves have more energy, feel less inflammation affecting their gut, and move around more.

 

References

Clapp, Megan, et al. “Gut Microbiota’s Effect on Mental Health: The Gut-Brain Axis.” Clinics and Practice, PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy, 15 Sept. 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5641835/.

de Zoete, Marcel R, et al. “Inflammasomes.” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 16 Oct. 2014, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4292152/.

Herradon, Gonzalo, et al. “Connecting Metainflammation and Neuroinflammation through the PTN-Mk-Rptpβ/ζ Axis: Relevance in Therapeutic Development.” Frontiers in Pharmacology, Frontiers Media S.A., 12 Apr. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474308/.

Osadchiy, Vadim, et al. “The Gut-Brain Axis and the Microbiome: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications.” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : the Official Clinical Practice Journal of the American Gastroenterological Association, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6999848/.

Wang, Junfeng, et al. “Roles of the Inflammasome in the Gut‑Liver Axis (Review).” Molecular Medicine Reports, D.A. Spandidos, Jan. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297761/.

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Relieving Gut Issues With Nutraceuticals

Relieving Gut Issues With Nutraceuticals

Introduction

The gut system is a massive ecosystem that helps modulate the body’s immune system and metabolic changes that the body itself is going through. The gut system provides the body with the necessary nutrients to function correctly and transports these nutrients to their respective sections like the endocrine system, the nervous system, and the musculoskeletal system to do their jobs. When gut disorders start to affect the intestinal walls, it can cause the inflammatory cytokines to attack the gut walls due to bacteria and nutrients leaking out of the tight junctions. Fortunately, there are therapeutic ways to help the gut system and prevent inflammation from causing more issues in the gut. Today’s article looks at gut metainflammation and how nutraceuticals can help many individuals with gut metainflammation. Referring patients to qualified, skilled providers who specialize in gastroenterology treatments. We provide guidance to our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is critical for asking insightful questions to our providers. Dr. Alex Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

 

Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions or concerns, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

15 - LaValle GI Therapies

What Is Gut Metainflammation?

 

Does your gut system feel sore or tender to the touch? Do ordinary factors like stress, sleep problems, hormone imbalances, and cardiovascular issues affect you more than they should have? Have you experienced inflammatory gut issues like IBS or leaky gut? Having any gut disorder is no laughing matter for your health. When the gut system is experiencing chronic low‐grade inflammatory sequela, this is what gut metainflammation is in the body. Gut metainflammation is defined as an over‐activation of immunity in the gut that leads to increased production of inflammatory cytokines, thus referring to metabolism-induced inflammation. Research studies have shown that when the gut is experiencing metainflammation, it causes a disturbance to the neurometabolic pathways. This causes an increase in the aging processes and metabolic signaling issues the gut is trying to provide for the body. Other research studies have shown that metainflammation is one of the primary markers for metabolic disorders like obesity, type 2 diabetes, and NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease). Gut metainflammation also causes an increase in peripheral and central inflammation that can cause gut disorders like leaky gut to allow bacteria and toxins to enter the bloodstream, thus leading to peripheral and central inflammation of the body.


Treatments For GI Disorders-Video

Have you experienced a leaky gut? Do you feel tired throughout the entire day? Have you experienced any food sensitivities in your gut? These gut issues are due to gut metainflammation that can impact a person’s health and quality of life. When this occurs, the body will become dysfunctional, and other issues will arise unless it is treated right away. The video above shows how treatments are available for alleviating motility disorders and GI disorders affecting the gut system. Utilizing treatments beneficial to the gut system can help dampen the effects of metainflammation and other gut disorders from progressing in the body. Some treatments that can help with draining metainflammation in the gut system can be found by changing dietary lifestyles and incorporating nutraceuticals that are beneficial to the gut.


Controlling Gut Metainflammation Through Nutraceuticals

Research studies have shown that since trillions of microbial cells make up the gut microbiota when factors like obesity, metainflammation, and impaired insulin activity affect the gut, it can cause the immune cells to reactivate and reinforce the inflammatory process to attack the gut system. When the gut system becomes dysfunctional, many individuals try to find ways to alleviate gut inflammation. One of the treatments is by incorporating nutraceuticals to provide relief from gut metainflammation. Research studies have mentioned that combined with functional foods can help provide a positive influence on the body’s metabolism and the gut microbiota. Nutraceuticals help give the body the necessary nutrients it deserves and help dampen any effects from disorders affecting the body’s gut, immune, and metabolic components. Two nutraceuticals can help control gut metainflammation: curcumin and peptides.

 

Curcumin & Peptides For Gut Metainflammaion

From turmeric (Curcuma longa) root/rhizome and used traditionally for dyspeptic conditions, research studies have mentioned that curcumin and its anti-inflammatory metabolites can help influence the gut microbiota. What curcumin does to the gut is that it helps decrease the inflammasome signaling while decreasing oxidative stress via the Nrf2‐keap1 pathway. Curcumin can also help improve flexibility and mobility in the body while inhibiting the activation of a peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐gamma pathway. Additional information has provided that curcumin can help not only reduce oxidative stress and even prevent neurodegeneration.

 

Peptides or BPC‐157 (Body Protection Compound) are derived from human gastric juice that is cytoprotective and anti‐inflammatory that helps support the gut mucosal lining. Research studies have shown that peptides play a critical role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis while being effective in decreasing metainflammatory signaling in the gut microbiota. When there is metainflammation in the gut, peptides can help improve cell survival under oxidative stress conditions by downregulating TNF‐alpha in the body. Incorporating peptides can help improve GI mucosal integrity from meta inflammation and help the gut function normally.

 

Conclusion

The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that help keep the body’s functionality and regulate immunity from various diseases. When unwanted factors like metainflammation start to infiltrate the gut, it can lead to dysbiosis and wreck the intestinal walls. Nutraceuticals like curcumin and peptides have beneficial properties that help repair the intestinal walls while dampening inflammatory effects from progressing further in the gut system. Incorporating nutraceuticals is helpful for many individuals who suffer from gut disorders and improve their health by replenishing their nutrients in the body.

 

References

Boulangé, Claire L, et al. “Impact of the Gut Microbiota on Inflammation, Obesity, and Metabolic Disease.” Genome Medicine, BioMed Central, 20 Apr. 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4839080/.

Di Meo, Francesco, et al. “Curcumin, Gut Microbiota, and Neuroprotection.” Nutrients, MDPI, 11 Oct. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835970/.

Gubatan, John, et al. “Antimicrobial Peptides and the Gut Microbiome in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.” World Journal of Gastroenterology, Baishideng Publishing Group Inc, 21 Nov. 2021, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8613745/.

Laparra, J M, and Y Sanz. “Interactions of Gut Microbiota with Functional Food Components and Nutraceuticals.” Pharmacological Research, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 13 Nov. 2009, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19914380/.

Scazzocchio, Beatrice, et al. “Interaction between Gut Microbiota and Curcumin: A New Key of Understanding for the Health Effects of Curcumin.” Nutrients, MDPI, 19 Aug. 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7551052/.

Scheithauer, Torsten P M, et al. “Gut Microbiota as a Trigger for Metabolic Inflammation in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.” Frontiers in Immunology, Frontiers Media S.A., 16 Oct. 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596417/.

Tilg, Herbert, et al. “The Intestinal Microbiota Fuelling Metabolic Inflammation.” Nature Reviews. Immunology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 6 Aug. 2019, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31388093/.

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Healthy Gut & Healthy Nutrients

Healthy Gut & Healthy Nutrients

Introduction

When it comes to the gut system, its main priority is to ensure that the body is supplied with nutrients and digests the consumed food that a person is eating. The beneficial nutrients help the body stay in motion, while the gut system constantly communicates with the immune and the central nervous system. The gut microbiota also harbors beneficial bacteria that helps keeps the gut staying functional and turns the consumed food into nutrients and vitamins to be distributed to the rest of the body. When disruptive factors start to affect the gut microbiota, it can cause unwanted symptoms, causing the body to become dysfunctional. Today’s article post will discuss how the gut microbiota helps the body and how healthy nutrients like probiotics and fermented foods help support the gut system. Referring patients to qualified, skilled providers who specialize in gastroenterology treatments. We provide guidance to our patients by referring to our associated medical providers based on their examination when it’s appropriate. We find that education is critical for asking insightful questions to our providers. Dr. Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

 

Can my insurance cover it? Yes, it may. If you are uncertain, here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions or concerns, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

 

How Does The Gut Microbiota Help The Body?

 

Have you felt discomfort in your gut? In your gut microbiota, do you experience inflammatory discomforts like IBSSIBO, or GERD? Do you feel low energy or feeling sluggish throughout the entire day? Many of these symptoms that a person has encountered are associated with the gut system and can become chronic over time when it is not treated right away. Research studies have defined the gut microbiota as a complex organ system with a dynamic population of microorganisms that influences the body during homeostasis and diseases it encounters. The body needs the gut system since it plays a vital role in maintaining the body’s immunity and metabolic stasis while protecting it from infections. Additional studies have shown that when the body is going through different changes like dietary habits, lifestyle changes, or physical activities can influence the gut microbiota. Any of these changes can affect the gut system by changing the composition and density of the gut. When the changes are harmful to the gut, they can cause unwanted symptoms that cause dysfunction in the gut; however, when the changes are good, they can help the gut system in so many ways that help the body.


Tips For Keeping A Healthy Microbiota-Video

Feeling tired throughout the entire day? Have you become sensitive to the food you eat? Have you experienced inflammatory gut systems like GERD, IBS, or SIBO that affect your life? Many individuals with some gut issues try to find ways to alleviate them and change their dietary habits. Sometimes incorporating gut-healthy foods and supplements is beneficial in regrowing the gut flora in the intestines while also dampening the inflammatory effects caused by gut-related issues. Healthy nutrition and nutraceuticals that help the gut microbiota can also repair the intestinal wall lining from inflammatory factors attacking the gut. The video above gives an excellent presentation on five tips for keeping a healthy gut microbiota. When many individuals start changing their dietary habits to improve their gut system, they will experience more energy and a happy gut.


Healthy Nutrients For The Gut

When it comes to the gut system and trying to keep it healthy, the best way that a person can do that is by figuring out which healthy foods are beneficial to the gut and provide energy to the body. Since many people want to change their dietary habits from eating processed foods to nutritional whole foods, research studies have found that since the gut microbiota is a changing ecosystem, dietary strategies that a person goes under can help prevent diseases and maintain a healthy gut. One of the best ways that a person can do to ensure a healthy gut is by consuming prebiotic-rich foods, fermented, and cultured food to balance out the gut microbes. These two nutrients help stabilize the gut when the harmful bacteria start to overpopulate inside the intestines and diminish the beneficial bacteria in the gut system.

 

Probiotics & Fermented Foods

Probiotics are defined as a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms that are conferring a health benefit to the gut system. Research studies have also defined probiotics are live beneficial bacteria that help dampen the inflammatory effects in the intestinal walls and help replenish the gut flora in the gut system. Additional research has also shown that pro and prebiotics help stimulate the beneficial growth of microorganisms in the gut. Probiotics can also alleviate many disorders affecting the immune, cardiovascular, and gut issues that a person is experiencing.

 

Just like probiotics, fermented foods can also promote a healthy gut microbiome. Fermented foods are more digestible while producing bioactive peptides such as CLA and bacteriocins in the gut. Fermented foods also allow polyphenols into an active state that incorporates vitamins, enzyme activity, and amino acid production while enhancing mineral absorption. Research studies have shown that fermented foods help balance gut microbial and brain functionality. Fermented foods also improve the balance with the intestinal permeability functions while filling with antioxidant, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory factors. Additional information has shown that when people incorporate fermented foods into their diets, it can enhance a person’s health by changing the number of beneficial bacteria in the gut system. This will help restore the gut flora functionality and help reduce the gut inflammation that a person is experiencing.

 

Conclusion

The gut system helps keep the body functional by releasing nutrients and minerals to the vital organs, tissues, and muscles that help keep the body moving. The gut system also communicates with the immune and brain system in transmitting the information that the food is being transformed into nutrients. When a person is suffering from gut issues and inflammatory effects, the best way to alleviate these symptoms is to slowly change dietary habits by incorporating probiotics and fermented foods into a healthy diet to repair the gut system and the intestinal walls. When people make these small changes to their diets, their gut system will replenish the gut flora and have a happy gut.

 

References

Bell, Victoria, et al. “One Health, Fermented Foods, and Gut Microbiota.” Foods (Basel, Switzerland), MDPI, 3 Dec. 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6306734/.

Ferraris, Cinzia, et al. “Gut Microbiota for Health: How Can Diet Maintain a Healthy Gut Microbiota?” Nutrients, MDPI, 23 Nov. 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7700621/.

Rinninella, Emanuele, et al. “Food Components and Dietary Habits: Keys for a Healthy Gut Microbiota Composition.” Nutrients, MDPI, 7 Oct. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835969/.

Stiemsma, Leah T, et al. “Does Consumption of Fermented Foods Modify the Human Gut Microbiota?” The Journal of Nutrition, Oxford University Press, 1 July 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330458/.

Thursby, Elizabeth, and Nathalie Juge. “Introduction to the Human Gut Microbiota.” The Biochemical Journal, Portland Press Ltd., 16 May 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5433529/.

Wieërs, Grégoire, et al. “How Probiotics Affect the Microbiota.” Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, Frontiers Media S.A., 15 Jan. 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6974441/.

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