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Functional Endocrinology: Prostaglandin Balance

Functional Endocrinology: Prostaglandin Balance

Prostaglandins are different than hormones. They are not secreted from a gland that can be carried through the bloodstream and work on specific areas around the body. Prostaglandins are made by a chemical reaction in the body that can be made in all the organs and are part of the body�s way of dealing with injuries and illnesses.

When any part of the body has been damaged, prostaglandins are made at the site of tissue damage or infection where they cause inflammation, pain and fever as part of the body�s healing process. When there is a high level of prostaglandins in the body due to the natural healing process from injuries and inflammation, it can contribute to several diseases from the unwanted inflammation.

Prostaglandins in the Omega fatty acids

In omega-6 fatty acids, DGLA (dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid) creates Prostaglandin E1(PG-1) as anti-inflammatory receptors in the body. In omega-3 fatty acids, they can create Prostaglandin E3 (PG-3) that are also anti-inflammatory receptors as well. PG-1 and PG-3 help prevent blood clotting in the body system.

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When it comes to pro-inflammatory receptors, omega-6 fatty acids have these receptors as well. Pro-inflammatory receptors are created by arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid creates Prostaglandin E2 (PG-2), which is responsible for inflammation, swelling and clotting as well.

There has to be a balance between PG-2 and PG-1,3 to provide a healthy function in the body and an ideal hormone signaling response. When one of the PGs are being disrupted by trans-fatty acids from food, it can cause health problems to a person.

Deficiencies in Prostaglandins

Trans fatty acids are a form of unsaturated fats that can be either natural or artificial. They are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Numerous studies have been shown that consuming trans fatty acids continuously can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This can also increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol in the body. Trans fatty acids can block the activity of D6D (delta-6-desaturase), which is the first step in prostaglandin synthesis from essential fats in the diet.

The excess sugar consumption, insulin surges, inflammation, protein deficiencies hypothyroidism, and alcohol consumption will impair the activity of D6D and be a marker of accelerating aging to the human body. When a person has an increased consumption from fried foods and vegetable oils in an Western diet will shift the omega-6 pathway from PG-1 and into PG-2 production in the body. With the current American diet, people consume a high quantity of omega-6 fatty acids and low quantity of omega-3 fatty acids. This will cause a strong reaction of an inflammatory prostaglandin shift.

Since prostaglandins are caused by injuries and inflammation to heal the body, when an individual consumes a high omega-6 diet, it can cause an excessive amount of inflammation to the body and it can lead to chronic illnesses.

More Deficiencies in Prostaglandins

A deficiency in nutrients like nicotinic acid, pyridoxal 5� -phosphate, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and molybdenum is required for the desaturase and elongase enzymes in omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their deficiency can lead to improper production of prostaglandins. So EFAs from diets cause overconsumption of omega-6 and a lack of essential fatty acids in the body.

After that happens, then the EFAs can be synthesized into prostaglandins with desaturase and elongase enzymes. This will then cause nutrient deficiencies and metabolic factors can impair and downregulate those enzymes and causing the body to be prone to pro-inflammatory.

When that happens, prostaglandin formation will suddenly turn into abnormal ratios in the body causing problems, excessive inflammation in the endocrine glands and the body organs, and soon later on if it is not fixed, chronic illnesses will cause proper hormones to alter their components and either stop producing or create an abundance in the body.

Conclusion

Prostaglandins are a chemical reaction to the body that are different than hormones. They are caused when the body is injured and it causes inflammation so it can naturally heal itself. When there is an excessive amount of prostaglandins in the body it can lead to chronic inflammation and cause an abnormal shift in the body�s functional state. A factor that can affect the prostaglandins as well is the excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids. This consumption can cause inflammation and can make the body feel sluggish and not feeling great. There are products that can help the body, especially balancing the production of essential fatty acids and metabolizing the body for optimal health.

October is Chiropractic Health Month. To learn more about it, check out Governor Abbott�s bill on our website to get full details.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal and nervous health issues as well as functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .


References:

F.Horrobin, David. �Loss of Delta-6-Desaturase Activity as a Key Factor in Aging.� Medical Hypotheses, Churchill Livingstone, 22 Mar. 2004, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0306987781900645.

Horrobin, D F. �Fatty Acid Metabolism in Health and Disease: the Role of Delta-6-Desaturase.� The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, U.S. National Library of Medicine, May 1993, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8386433.

Innes, Jacqueline K, and Philip C Calder. �Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Inflammation.� Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, U.S. National Library of Medicine, May 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29610056.

Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz. �Trans Fatty Acids – A Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.� Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, Professional Medical Publicaitons, Jan. 2014, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3955571/.

Leech, Joe. �What Are Trans Fats, and Are They Bad for You?� Healthline, 30 July 2019, www.healthline.com/nutrition/why-trans-fats-are-bad.

Ricciotti, Emanuela, and Garret A FitzGerald. �Prostaglandins and Inflammation.� Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, May 2011, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3081099/.

Tallima, Hatem, and Rashika El Ridi. �Arachidonic Acid: Physiological Roles and Potential Health Benefits – A Review.� Journal of Advanced Research, Elsevier, 24 Nov. 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6052655/.

Unknown, Unknown. �Prostaglandins.� You and Your Hormones, Dec. 2016, www.yourhormones.info/hormones/prostaglandins/.

Wang, Xiaoping, et al. �Multiple Roles of Dihomo-?-Linolenic Acid against Proliferation Diseases.� Lipids in Health and Disease, BioMed Central, 14 Feb. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3295719/.

 

Functional Endocrinology: Essential Fatty Acids in Hormones

Functional Endocrinology: Essential Fatty Acids in Hormones

All fats, including saturated fatty acids, have very important roles in the body. The most important fats are the ones that the body can�t make and must be coming from the foods that a person eats. �Essential fatty acids are lipids that are involved in various biological processes and produce many compounds when they are metabolized in the body. The two primary EFAs (essential fatty acids) are linoleic acid (Omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (Omega-3). These two omegas are essential for the body since they are consumed from dietary sources because the body does not have the ability to synthesize them and EFAs are synthesized into prostaglandins, which are necessary for proper hormone signaling in the body.

Omega-6

olive-oils

Omega-6 fatty acids or linoleic acid are polyunsaturated fatty acids that are primarily used for energy and can be converted into longer omega-6 fats called ARA (arachidonic acid). ARA are used to produce eicosanoids, but they are prone to be more pro-inflammatory. Studies have shown that pro-inflammatory eicosanoids are important chemicals in the immune systems, however, when there are too many to produce, they can increase inflammation and inflammatory diseases in the body.

Researchers state that even though omega-6 fats are essential for a healthy body, the modern Western diet is making individuals consume more omega-6 fatty acids than the recommended amount. In a regular healthy diet, the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3s is 4:1 or less. In a Western diet however, the ratio is between 10:1 and 50:1.

Even though, an individual should consume the recommended amount of omega-6 fatty acids, research has shown that omega-6 fatty acids can lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases and treat symptoms that cause chronic diseases. In certain oils that contains omega-6 fatty acids, GLA (gamma-linolenic acid), which is an anti-inflammatory component and when consumed it converts to DGLA (dihomo-gamma-linolenic acids), which has anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties against cancer.

A study has shown that when an individual takes a high dose of GLA in their diet, it can significantly reduce a number of symptoms caused by rheumatoid arthritis, and another study found that taking GLA supplements with a breast cancer drug is more effective in lowering breast cancer.

Omega-3

omega3-foods

Just like omega-6 fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fats that play important roles in providing a number of health benefits for a functional body. Omega-3 fatty acids contain three important compounds that are found in foods, they are ALA (alpha-linolenic acid); which converts into energy for the body, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid); which is the key component for a functional brain and retina, and lastly, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid); which has cardiovascular benefits including lowering serum triglyceride and non-HDL-C (non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) in the body.

When it comes to those three important components in omega-3s, ALA is mainly found in plants, while DHA and EPA are found in mostly animal products and algae. What makes these three components work well in the omega-3 supplements is that they are a crucial part of the human cell membrane and improve heart health, support mental health, decrease liver fats and fight inflammation.

With omega-3 fatty acids, lots of people don�t consume it as much as omega-6, due to not eating a lot of fatty fish as often and consuming omega-6 through fried food being cooked in refined vegetable oils. To balance a healthy diet, individuals can take an omega-3 supplement to balance out the omega-6 consumption to make sure the body is receiving these fatty health benefits.

Prostaglandins

Prostaglandins are a component of this regulatory system, they affect multiple hormone synthesis and secretion pathways in the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. They are a group of endogenously occurring acidic lipids that appear to play a role in the reproductive physiology.

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Since prostaglandins are bioactive lipids, they exert an autocrine or paracrine function by binding to specific GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) to activate intracellular signaling and gene transcription. As key regulators of reproductive processes, prostaglandins has many functions like having a role in the hypothalamic and pituitary control of gonadotropin secretion, ovulation, in luteinization and in the corpus luteum regression.

Prostaglandins also play a key role in the inflammatory response in the body. Their biosynthesis is significantly increased in inflamed tissues and can contribute to the development of the cardinal signs of acute inflammation in the body.

Researchers stated that prostaglandins have a plethora of actions in the central nervous system that can affect the progress of inflammation in the body differently, however, further studies are being tested to inhibit the role of these lipid mediators.

Conclusion

All fats play a very important role in the body. Essential fatty acids produce many compounds in the body when they are being metabolized in the body. Since the body can not produce essential fatty acids, they have to be consumed through food. The two important essential fatty acids are omega-6 and omega-3. These two fatty supplements help the body gain the nutrients the body needs to synthesize. Prostaglandins are also a key role in the body since they affect the pathways in the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and plays the role of regulating the reproductive physiology. Some products are formulated to target the immune support by creating micronized structure to increase the surface-to-volume ratio of particles to be more available to enzymatic actions.

October is Chiropractic Health Month. To learn more about it, check out Governor Abbott�s proclamation on our website to get full details on this declaration.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal and nervous health issues as well as functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .


References:

Bardin, T P. �The Role of Prostaglandins in Reproductive Physiology.� The Ohio State Medical Journal, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Oct. 1970, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4918753.

Behrman, H R. �Prostaglandins in Hypothalamo-Pituitary and Ovarian Function.� Annual Review of Physiology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1979, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/373605.

Brinton, Eliot A, and R Preston Mason. �Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products Containing Highly Purified Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA).� Lipids in Health and Disease, BioMed Central, 31 Jan. 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28137294.

Calder, Philip C. �n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Inflammation, and Inflammatory Diseases.� The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2006, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16841861.

Di Pasquale, Mauro G. �The Essentials of Essential Fatty Acids.� Journal of Dietary Supplements, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2009, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22435414.

Dinan, Timothy, et al. �Investigating the Inflammatory Phenotype of Major Depression: Focus on Cytokines and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.� Journal of Psychiatric Research, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2009, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18640689.

Gibson, Robert A, et al. �Conversion of Linoleic Acid and Alpha-Linolenic Acid to Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LCPUFAs), with a Focus on Pregnancy, Lactation and the First 2 Years of Life.� Maternal & Child Nutrition, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Apr. 2011, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21366864.

Guesnet, Philippe, and Jean-Marc Alessandri. �Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and the Developing Central Nervous System (CNS) – Implications for Dietary Recommendations.� Biochimie, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2011, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20478353.

Gunnars, Kris. �What Are Omega-3 Fatty Acids? Explained in Simple Terms.� Healthline, 23 May 2019, www.healthline.com/nutrition/what-are-omega-3-fatty-acids.

Innes, Jacqueline K, and Philip C Calder. �Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Inflammation.� Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, U.S. National Library of Medicine, May 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29610056.

Jabbour, H N, and K J Sales. �Prostaglandin Receptor Signalling and Function in Human Endometrial Pathology.� Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Oct. 2004, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15380812.

Kapoor, Rakesh, and Yung-Sheng Huang. �Gamma Linolenic Acid: an Antiinflammatory Omega-6 Fatty Acid.� Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Dec. 2006, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17168669.

Kenny, F S, et al. �Gamma Linolenic Acid with Tamoxifen as Primary Therapy in Breast Cancer.� International Journal of Cancer, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Mar. 2000, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10699943.

Khanapure, Subhash P, et al. �Eicosanoids in Inflammation: Biosynthesis, Pharmacology, and Therapeutic Frontiers.� Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2007, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17305573.

Kim, Kyu-Bong, et al. �?-Linolenic Acid: Nutraceutical, Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation.� Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Aug. 2014, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859185.

M.Shewchuk, Brian. �Prostaglandins and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Regulation of the Hypothalamic�Pituitary Axis.� Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, Churchill Livingstone, 28 Sept. 2014, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0952327814001495.

Parker, Helen M, et al. �Omega-3 Supplementation and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.� Journal of Hepatology, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK), Apr. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22023985.

Petersen, Martin, et al. �Effect of Fish Oil versus Corn Oil Supplementation on LDL and HDL Subclasses in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.� Diabetes Care, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Oct. 2002, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12351465.

Ph.D., Catharine Paddock. �Could Omega-6 Fatty Acids Help Us Live Longer?� Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 20 Mar. 2018, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321266.php.

Robertson, Ruairi. �Omega-3-6-9 Fatty Acids: A Complete Overview.� Healthline, 15 Jan. 2017, www.healthline.com/nutrition/omega-3-6-9-overview.

Simopoulos, Artemis P. �The Importance of the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio in Cardiovascular Disease and Other Chronic Diseases.� Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood, N.J.), U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2008, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18408140.

Wang, Xiaoping, et al. �Multiple Roles of Dihomo-?-Linolenic Acid against Proliferation Diseases.� Lipids in Health and Disease, BioMed Central, 14 Feb. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3295719/.

Weylandt, Karsten H, et al. �Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: The Way Forward in Times of Mixed Evidence.� BioMed Research International, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2015, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4537707/.

Zurier, R B, et al. �Gamma-Linolenic Acid Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.� Arthritis and Rheumatism, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Nov. 1996, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8912502.

Functional Endocrinology: Understanding Hormones From the Pituitary to the Receptor Sites

Functional Endocrinology: Understanding Hormones From the Pituitary to the Receptor Sites

The body secretes and circulates 50 different hormones to different organs in the body. Hormones are the chemical substances that coordinate the activities of living organism growth. They are secreted through the endocrine glands and travel through the bloodstream to different organs in the body to function properly. When there is an excessive quantity or an reduced quantity of hormones being produced, it can cause the body to malfunction and develop chronic illnesses.

The Pituitary Gland Functions

In neuroendocrinology, an endocrine gland can�t make a hormone without activation from a pituitary-stimulating hormone. The pituitary-stimulating hormone helps regulate hormones by secreting them to the endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is known as the �master gland� since it controls the activity of the other endocrine glands and it consists of 3 parts known as the anterior, intermediate and posterior lobes.

Anterior Lobe

adenohypophysis

The anterior pituitary gland is located in the sella turcica and is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain. It secretes a quantity of peptides and glycoprotein hormones that help regulate the growth, metabolism, reproduction and stress response. The anterior pituitary gland produces 6 hormones that circulate to their respective targets in the body.

  • ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone): This hormone is a tropic hormone as it regulates cortisol and androgen production to the adrenal cortex. Cortisol or stress hormones stimulates the release of ACTH, while the adrenal cortex secretes glucocorticoids to the body�s metabolism.
  • GH (Growth hormone): This hormone helps regulate the body�s growth, metabolism, and composition. GH is secreted by the somatotroph cells located primarily in the lateral wings of the anterior lobe. GH can also secrete in al pulsatile fashion and can have a maximal release during a circadian rhythm at night.
  • TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone): This hormone is involved by coordinating the signal regulation of the hypothalamus, the pituitary, and the thyroid. It requires the oxidation of dietary iodine, since iodine is absorbed through the small intestine and transported to the thyroid. After the iodine is transported it can be concentrated, oxidized and then incorporated into thyroglobulin to be formed to T4 and T3 later on.
  • LH (Luteinizing hormone): This hormone is highly important to both men and women, since it affects the sex organs and plays a role in puberty, menstruation and fertility. For women, it creates progesterone, which help regulate menstruation and supports pregnancy in the female body. For men, it creates testosterone, which helps regulates fertility, muscle mass, fat distribution, and red blood production in the male body.
  • FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone): This hormone plays an important part in the reproductive system and is responsible for ovarian follicles. For females, FSH helps produce estrogen, which is a group of sex hormones that help promote the development and maintenance of female characteristics in the human body, For males, FSH helps produce spermatogenesis and regulates sperm function in the male body.
  • Prolactin: This is a protein hormone in the anterior lobe. It has the ability to promote lactation to nursing mothers. It synthesizes within the pituitary gland, the central nervous system, the immune system, and the uterus.

Intermediate lobe

intermediate

The intermediate lobe is composed of a homogeneous population of the endocrine cells, the melanotrophs and secretes several bioactive peptides. It contains very few blood vessels and can be virtually avascular. The melanotrophs are richly supplied by nerve fibers that originate from the hypothalamus.

  • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone: This hormone has many functions in a diverse physiological role. It affects skin pigmentation and studies have shown that it has antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects that help decrease in nephrotoxin exposure to the body.

Posterior lobe

posterior

The posterior lobe is similar to the anterior lobe since they both control endocrine function and the body�s hormonal response to the environment. The hypothalamus receives neural signals from the brain and secretes polypeptide and neuropeptide hormones for storage in the posterior lobe until they are ready to be released. The hormones in the posterior lobe are in charge of regulating water retention and inducing uterine contractions.

  • ADH (Antidiuretic hormone): Also known as vasopressin, this hormone is a nonapeptide that is synthesized in the hypothalamus. It plays a bunch of important roles in controlling the body�s osmotic balance, regulates blood pressure, and makes sure that the kidneys are working. ADH is mainly responsible for tonicity homeostasis as they act primarily in kidneys to increase water reabsorption.
  • Oxytocin: Also known as the �love hormone�, oxytocin is also a neurotransmitter that is involved in childbirth and breast-feeding. It has benefits as a treatment for a number of conditions like depression, anxiety and intestinal problems and is produced in the hypothalamus. Studies show that females have a higher level of oxytocin than males, especially to nursing mothers with their babies.

Free-fraction Hormones

When an endocrine gland synthesizes a hormone, it is released into circulation and bound to as a protein. Hormones attach themselves to proteins but they can�t bind to hormone receptors. So what a hormone needs to do is to lose its binding protein to become a �free-fraction� hormone. Studies have stated that a fraction of a hormone that is free is called in vitro and it is equivalent to the fraction of a hormone that is free and available to be transported into tissues are called in vivo. Free-fraction hormones make up less than 1% of all circulating hormones since they don�t impact the hypothalamus-pituitary feedback loop.

Hormone Metabolites

Hormones are metabolized by hepatic and microbiome biotransformation pathways into various hormone metabolites. Hormone metabolites have their own impact on cell receptors, studies have shown that this impact is not fully understood yet but hormone metabolites are not a reflection of direct endocrine gland production but it can be metabolized in the liver as well. Hormone metabolites can bind to hormone receptors or can be eliminated by renal or fecal clearance pathways.

Conclusion

All in all, the body secretes and circulates 50 different hormones to different organs in the body. These hormones are chemically produced in the body and keep an eye on what each of the different organs is doing. It is important that the hormone receptors are functioning properly so that an individual is feeling good both inside and out. If there is a hormonal imbalance in the body, it can cause dysfunction and chronic illnesses to a person.

October is Chiropractic Health Month. To learn more about it, check out Governor Abbott�s proclamation on our website to get full details on this declaration.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal and nervous health issues as well as functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .


References:

Allen, Mary J. �Physiology, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH).� StatPearls [Internet]., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 3 Mar. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK500031/.

Clinic, Cleveland. �Overactive Pituitary Gland & Hyperpituitarism.� Cleveland Clinic, 22 Mar. 2017, my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15173-pituitary-gland–hyperpituitarism-overactive-pituitary-gland.

Cuzzo, Brian. �Vasopressin (Antidiuretic Hormone, ADH).� StatPearls [Internet]., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2 Feb. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526069/.

Ellis, Mary Ellen, and Rachel Nall. �Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Test: What It Is and Why It’s Important.� Healthline, 29 Aug. 2017, www.healthline.com/health/lh-blood-test.

Ellis, Ronald E, and Gillian M Stanfield. �The Regulation of Spermatogenesis and Sperm Function in Nematodes.� Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, May 2014, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4082717/.

Freeman, M E, et al. �Prolactin: Structure, Function, and Regulation of Secretion.� Physiological Reviews, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Oct. 2000, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11015620.

Genes, S G. �Role of the Liver in Hormone Metabolism and in the Regulation of Their Content in the Blood.� Arkhiv Patologii, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1977, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/334126.

Goyal, Shikha. �List of Important Hormones and Their Functions.� Jagranjosh.com, 12 Mar. 2019, www.jagranjosh.com/general-knowledge/list-of-important-hormones-and-their-functions-1516176713-1.

Gunawardane, Kavinga. �Normal Physiology of Growth Hormone in Adults.� Endotext [Internet]., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 12 Nov. 2015, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279056/.

Hadley, M E, et al. �Biological Actions of Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone.� Ciba Foundation Symposium, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1981, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6268380.

Lamacz, M, et al. �The Intermediate Lobe of the Pituitary, Model of Neuroendocrine Communication.� Archives Internationales De Physiologie, De Biochimie Et De Biophysique, U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 1991, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1717055.

Lee, Heon-Jin, et al. �Oxytocin: the Great Facilitator of Life.� Progress in Neurobiology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2009, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2689929/.

M., William. �Transport of Protein-Bound Hormones into Tissues in Vivo *.� OUP Academic, Oxford University Press, 1 Jan. 1981, academic.oup.com/edrv/article-abstract/2/1/103/2548700?redirectedFrom=fulltext.

MacGill, Markus. �Oxytocin: The Love Hormone?� Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 4 Sept. 2017, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/275795.php.

MacGill, Markus. �Testosterone: Functions, Deficiencies, and Supplements.� Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 6 Feb. 2019, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/276013.php.

Nichols, Hannah. �Estrogen: Functions, Uses, and Imbalances.� Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 2 Jan. 2018, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/277177.php.

Patel, Hiran. �Physiology, Posterior Pituitary.� StatPearls [Internet]., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 27 Oct. 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526130/.

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Introducing The Endocrine System in a Functional Way

Introducing The Endocrine System in a Functional Way

The endocrine system is a network of glands and organs surrounding the body. While it is similar to the nervous system, it plays a vital role in controlling and regulating many body functions, as well as using chemical messengers called hormones. Since hormones circulate throughout the entire body, each type of hormone targets specific organs and tissues. The whole system is made up of glands and organs that release hormones into the body. Each has a different function to make sure that the human body is working correctly. If there is a disruption in one of the organs, it can cause problems and possibly lead to chronic illnesses later on.

Functioning The Endocrine System

In the endocrine system, it is responsible for regulating the body through the release of hormones. These hormones are secreted by the glands that travel through the bloodstream to various organs and tissues, telling them what to do or how to function in the body properly. Some of the bodily functions are controlled by the endocrine system. This includes the body�s metabolism, growth and development, heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, appetite, and sleeping and waking cycles.

hormone

Studies have shown that the endocrine and the nervous system work closely together since the brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system while returning the favor, the endocrine glands receive feedback to the brain. With an intimate relationship, both methods are referred to as the neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine system is a mechanism where the hypothalamus maintains homeostasis, regulates reproduction, metabolism, and blood pressure. The neuroendocrine system works together with the immune system as they play an essential role in maintaining and restoring homeostasis in the body to function correctly.

The Organs of the Endocrine System

The endocrine system has a complex network of glands that secrete substances. The glands produce, store, and release throughout the body, targeting specific organs and tissues. Here are what each gland does in the endocrine system and what their functions are in the body.

Hypothalamus

hypothalamus

The hypothalamus gland is known as the master switchboard located in the center of the brain. Its role is significant because it controls and creates many hormones in the body. It also makes sure that it has to keep the body in a homeostasis state as much as possible. If the hypothalamus is not working correctly, it can cause problems for the body, and it can lead to a wide range of rare disorders.

Pituitary

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The pituitary gland is known as the master gland due to regulating the other endocrine glands activities. It plays an essential role by balancing hormone levels in the body, and together with the hypothalamus gland, they control the involuntary nervous system. This system helps manage the balance of the energy, heat, and water in the body. The pituitary gland also produces several hormones that can either regulate most of the other hormone glands or a direct effect on specific organs. When the endocrine glands produce too little or an excessive quantity of hormones, it can cause the body to be imbalanced.

Pineal

The pineal gland is a small, pea-shaped gland that is in the brain and is sometimes called �the third eye.� It plays a role in producing and regulates hormones in females that may affect fertility and the menstrual cycle, including producing and excreting melatonin in the body. A 2016 study suggests that melatonin can help protect against cardiovascular diseases; however, there is still more research being done about the potential function of melatonin in the body.

pineal

When the pineal gland is not producing the correct amount of melatonin, it can cause an individual to have sleep disorders and accumulate an excessive quantity of calcium in the body. One of the most prominent symptoms that can cause pineal gland dysfunction is a change in circadian rhythms. A person can disrupt their circadian rhythm either sleeping too much or too little, having restless nights, and feeling sleepy at unusual times.

Thyroid

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The thyroid gland a butterfly wing-shaped gland that is located in the anterior neck. It plays a huge vital role in the metabolism, growth, and development of the human body. It regulates many body functions by constantly releasing a steady amount of hormones in the bloodstream. When the thyroid produces too much or too little hormones, it can cause hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in the body, causing many chronic illnesses in the body.

Parathyroid

The parathyroid gland is located behind the thyroid and plays a vital role in maintaining bone health, making sure the nervous system is running smoothly, and that muscles are pumping regularly. Parathyroid glands release PTH (parathyroid hormone), which regulates calcium in the bloodstream. Research shows that calcium is the only mineral in the body that has its very own dedicated regulatory gland. Calcium not only helps with bone strength, but it conducts electrical impulses in the nervous system and its energy in muscle cells. The PTH can also signal the kidneys and small intestines to save calcium from being digested.

parathyroid-gland

When the parathyroid gland produces an excessive amount or a decreased amount of PTH, it can cause hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism leading the body to have many malfunctions, including weak bones in the body.

Thymus

The thymus gland is known as �the forgotten, but very important organ.� �It produces progenitor cells, which matures into T-cells and helps the organs in the immune system to grow properly. According to an article published by the NLM (U.S. National Library of Medicine), it stated that the thymus is the primary cell donor for the lymphatic system.

thymus

One of the most common diseases that can cause thymus dysfunction is MG (myasthenia gravis), PRCA (pure red cell aplasia), and hypogammaglobulinemia. These diseases can attack the body and cause chronic illnesses in the immune system.

Adrenal

adrenal

The adrenal glands are located on the top of the kidneys and help produce sex hormones and cortisol, they even work together with the pituitary glands. When cortisol is released from the adrenal glands, it can help with the response to stress and many essential functions in the body. When abnormal signals are disrupting the number of hormones that the pituitary glands telling the adrenal glands to produce. It can cause vitamin D to unbalance and many chronic illnesses.

Pancreas

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The pancreas is located in the abdomen and is part of the digestive system. It produces insulin, essential enzymes, and hormones that help break down food and sends it to the small intestine. When the pancreas produces the insulin hormone, it secretes it into the bloodstream, regulating the body�s glucose levels. There are many problems if the pancreas is not functioning correctly, causing the entire body to malfunction. If the pancreas is not producing enough insulin in the body, an individual is at risk for diabetes. Another factor is the development of pancreatic cancer caused by smoking or heavy drinking. The best way to keep a healthy pancreas is to maintain a healthy balanced diet.

Conclusion

The endocrine system is a network of glands and organs that surrounds the body. Each gland sends out hormones throughout the body and transfers to the specific organs that need these hormones to function correctly. If there is a disruption in the endocrine system, it can cause the body to malfunction and develop chronic illnesses.

October is Chiropractic Health Month. To learn more about it, check out Governor Abbott�s declaration on our website to get full details on this proclamation.

So the mechanisms of an autoimmune disease can be either by genetics or by environmental factors that can cause an individual to have problems in their body. There are many autoimmune diseases, both common and rare, that can affect the body. The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal and nervous health issues as well as functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .


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