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Functional Endocrinology: Normalizing the Gut

Functional Endocrinology: Normalizing the Gut

Microbes have multicellular hosts and can have many effects on the host�s health and well-being. Researchers have stated that microbes influence metabolism, immunity, and behavior on the human body. One of the most important but understudied mechanisms that microbes have is that they can involve hormones. In the presence of gut microbiota, specific changes in hormone levels can correlate in the gut. The gut microbiota can produce and secrete hormones, respond to the host hormones, and regulate their expression levels. There is also a link between the endocrine system and the gut microbiota as more information is still being researched.

The Gut to Hormone Connection

Since the human microbiome contains a vast array of microbes and genes that shows a higher complexity. Unlike other organs in the body, the gut microbiota’s function is not fully understood yet but can be disrupted easily by antibiotics, diet, or surgery. The best-characterized function is how the gut microbiota interacts with the endocrine system in the body.


Emerging research has indicated that the gut microbiome plays a central role in regulating estrogen levels within the body. When the estrogen hormone levels are too high or too low, it can lead to the risk of developing estrogen-related diseases like endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, breast cancer, and prostate cancer to males and females.

The gut to hormone connection is essential since the gut is one of the producers to create hormones that travel through the entire body system. With the endocrine system is being involved, it is the first network to produce and transport hormones to the organs that need the hormones to function. When there is an imbalance of hormones in the human body, it can disrupt all the other hormones.

The gut microbiota influences nearly every hormone that the endocrine system creates, including:

  • The thyroid hormones
  • Estrogen hormones
  • Stress hormones

Thyroid Hormones


If the gut has inflammation, then the hormones in the body will create an excessive or low quantity in the body. If the endocrine glands like thyroid, are producing a low quantity of hormones and the gut can be imbalanced and lead to hypothyroidism. When there is low microbial diversity in the gut, studies have shown that the low microbial diversity is linked to high TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) levels. The excessive quantity of thyroid hormones can lead to hyperthyroidism. Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism can cause symptoms like irritability, anxiety, poor memory, and many symptoms that can affect the body.

“If you are experiencing excessive belching, burping, bloating, difficult bowel movements difficulty digesting proteins and meats; undigested food found in stools, digestive problems subside with rest and relaxation or any symptoms. Then this article will give you a better understand what is happening with the gut and how hormones can affect the gut system.”

Estrogen Hormones

The gut and an individual’s hormones are meant to be in communication with each other. They not only support each other, but they also work together to make sure the body is running smoothly. Studies have found out that the gut’s intestinal cells have special receptors for hormones that allow them to detect any hormonal shifts that affect the body.

Since estrogen is typically associated with women, it is common that men need the right amount of estrogen levels to function. The gut microbiota is the key regulator of leveling and circulating estrogen in the body. The microbes produce an enzyme called beta-glucuronidase, which then converts the estrogen hormone to its active form.

The gut microbiome can regulate estrogen levels by functioning a specific bacteria in the microbiome called estrobolome. Estrobolome is the aggregates of enteric bacterial genes that are capable of metabolizing estrogen. It might affect women’s risk of developing postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. The estrobolome is highly essential to keep estrogen levels in the body at a stable state.


In the gut microbiota, both the estrogen and progesterone hormones can impact the guts’ motility and peristalsis ( The rhythmic movement of the intestines that move food through the stomach and out of the body) by playing opposing roles in the guts� motility. Progesterone helps slow down the gut�s motility by relaxing the smooth and slowing transit the time the food is moving out of the body. Estrogen helps increase the contraction of the smooth muscles in the intestines. When the estrogen hormones are leveled right, it can help keep the gut moving smoothly and help increase the diversity of the body�s microbiomes, which is a good thing for the immune system.

Stress Hormones


Stress hormones or cortisol plays a massive part in the gut microbiota. Since cortisol hormones connect to the brain, it sends the signals to the gut and vice versa. If it is a short stressor like getting ready for a presentation or a job interview, the person will feel “butterflies” in their gut. The longer stressors, for example, like having a highly stressful job or feeling anxious consistently, can lead to chronic illnesses in the gut like inflammation or leaky gut. Since the hormone and gut connection is in sync with the gut and brain connection, it is crucial to lowering the cortisol levels to a stable state for a healthy functional body.


The gut and hormone connections are profoundly meaningful since they are linked closely together. When there is a disruption on the gut, it can cause hormones to be imbalanced, causing many disruptions like inflammation and leaky gut. When there is a disruption in the hormones, it can disrupt the gut as well by negatively shifting the gut’s microbiome. So to ensure that the gut is functioning correctly, it is crucial to eat food that contains probiotics and is fermented to keep the gut flora healthy. Some products can help counter the metabolic effects of temporary stress and supporting estrogen metabolism by incorporating other essential nutrients and cofactors to support the endocrine system.

October is Chiropractic Health Month. To learn more about it, check out Governor Abbott�s declaration on our website to get full details on this historic moment.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal and nervous health issues as well as functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .


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Functional Endocrinology: Hepatic Biotransformation & Hormone Balance

Functional Endocrinology: Hepatic Biotransformation & Hormone Balance

Biotransformation is the process of a substance changes from one chemical to another being transformed by a chemical reaction within the body. In the human body though, biotransformation is the process of rendering nonpolar (fat-soluble) compounds to polar (water-soluble) substances so they can be excreted in urine, feces, and sweat. It also serves as an important defense mechanism in the body to eliminate toxic xenobiotics out of the body through the liver. The liver is the one that takes these toxins and transformed them into suitable compounds to excrete out of the body as biotransformation.

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Detoxification is also known as �detoxication� in literature. It is also a type of alternative medicine treatment that aims the body to get rid of unspecified �toxins.� It is highly important for a person to detox their body and with biotransformation, it can be classified into two categories, under normal sequences, which tends to react with a xenobiotic. They are called Phase 1 and Phase 2 reactions that help the body with detoxification.

Phase 1 Reactions

Phase 1 reaction is consisting of oxidation-reduction and hydrolysis. Research shows that Phase 1 is generally the first defense employed by the body to biotransform xenobiotics, steroid hormones, and pharmaceuticals. They create CYP450 (cytochrome P450) enzymes and are described as functionalization microsomal membrane-bound that are located in the liver but can also be in enterocytes, kidney, lungs and the brain in the body. The CYP450 enzymes can be beneficial or have consequences for an individual�s response to the effect of a toxin they are exposed to.


Studies have been shown that phase 1 reactions have been affecting the elderly population. It states that hepatic phase 1 reaction involving oxidation, hydrolysis, and reduction appears to be more altered by age since the elderly population comprises the fastest-growing segment of the world�s population. It also states that there is a predictable, age-related decline in cytochrome P-540 function and combined with the polypharmacy that much of the elderly population experiences, this may lead to a toxic reaction of medication.

Phase 2 Reaction

Phase 2 reaction is part of the cellular biotransformation machinery and is a conjugation reaction in the body. They can involve the transfer of a number of hydrophilic compounds to enhanced the metabolites, and the excretion in the bile or urine in the body. The enzymes in Phase 2 reaction can also comprise multiple proteins and subfamilies to play an essential role in eliminating the biotransformed toxins and metabolizing steroid hormones and bilirubin in the body.

Screenshot 2019-10-14 09.40.07

Phase 2 enzymes can function not only in the liver but also in other tissues like the small intestines. When it combined with Phase 1, they can help the body naturally detox the toxins that the body may encounter. Hormones, toxins, and drugs undergo a hepatic transformation by Phase 1 and Phase 2 pathways in the liver, then are eliminated by phase 3 pathways.


Xenobiotics has been defined as chemicals that undergo metabolism and detoxication to produce numerous metabolites, some of which have the potential to cause unintended effects such as toxicity. They can also block the action of enzymes or receptors used for endogenous metabolism and produce liver damage to a person. Xenobiotics like drugs, chemotherapy, food additives, and environmental pollutants can generate serval free radicals that lead to an increase of oxidative stress in the cells. Accumulation of oxidative stress in the body can lead to an increase in potential cellular reduction in the body.

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Research shows that the body has a major challenge when it is detoxifying xenobiotics out of the body system and the body must be able to remove the almost-limitless number of the xenobiotic compounds from the complex mixture of chemicals that are involved in normal metabolism.

Studies even show that if the body doesn�t have a normal metabolism, many xenobiotics would reach toxic concentrations. It can even reach the respiratory tract either through airborne toxins or the bloodstream. It is important to make sure that the body and especially the liver to be healthy. Since the liver is the largest internal organ, it is responsible for detoxifying the toxins out of the body as urine, bile, and sweat.


Biotransformation is the process of substance changes from one chemical to another. In the body, it is a process of rendering fat-soluble compounds to water-soluble compounds, so it can be excreted out of the body as either urine, feces, or sweat. The liver is the one that causes toxic xenobiotics to transform into biotransformation and going through phase 1 and 2 to excrete the toxins out of the body for a healthy function.

Phase 1 reactions in the body are the first line of defense of the body detoxifying itself. Phase 2 creates CYP450 (cytochrome P450) that helps the body take the xenobiotic toxins and oxidates to reduce and hydrolysis the toxins to metabolites. Those metabolites then transform into Phase 2 reactions, which conjugates the metabolites in the body to be excreted out of the body. There are many factors that can make the body have xenobiotics, but the liver is the main organ to detoxify the xenobiotics out of the system. If there is an abundance of xenobiotics in the body, it can cause toxicity reaction causing the body to develop chronic illnesses. These products are known to help support the intestines and liver detoxication as well as, to help support hepatic detoxication for optimal healthy body function.

October is Chiropractic Health Month. To learn more about it, check out Governor Abbott�s bill on our website to get full details.

The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal and nervous health issues as well as functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .


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Hodges, Romilly E, and Deanna M Minich. �Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application.� Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2015,

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